• Has been indicated to be effective in the identification as well as analysis of causal factors in civil aviation

  • Can be used post hoc

  • Allows an analyst in identifying specific human errors at different organizational levels


  • Labor intensive and relies on detailed quality data

  • Needs informed human factors safety analysts

  • Depends on the overt actions of supervisor, manager, or operator

AmericanAirlines Flight 191

Changesin regulations and maintenance

  • Federal Aviation Administration acted by suspending the type certificate for DC-10 making all DC-10 under its command

  • Foreign DC-10s that were not under the jurisdiction of Federal Aviation Administration were banned from using U.S. airspace

  • Type certificate for the DC-10s became amended

  • Maintenance has been considered an important aspect and poorly maintained flights are restricted from using the U.S. airspace

JapanAirlines Flight 123

Changesin regulations and maintenance

  • The crash resulted to the opening of Safety Promotion Center on Tokyo International Airport grounds with the sole purpose of training on airline safety

  • Kinds of repairs permitted on aircraft skin became much more controlled rigorously

  • Personal safety became incorporated in training as a requirement for pilots

  • Repairs done to old aircrafts became carried out with stringent measures

AlaskaAirlines Flight 261

Changesin regulations and maintenance

  • Maintenance of aircrafts became a great concern and regulations on regular checks became introduced

  • Aircraft operation oversight became of great importance to the aviation industry

  • Inspection of the condition of aircrafts became a stringent measure that has to be done regularly

  • Heavy fines for poorly maintained aircrafts became introduced so as to keep off unworthy aircrafts from flying