BIOINFORMATICS/MOLECULAR EVOLUTION

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BIOINFORMATICS/MOLECULAREVOLUTION

Bioinformatics is the application of computer technology to theorganization of biological information. In this field, computers areapplied to gather, store, analyze, and integrate biological andgenetic information which can then be applied to advance gene-basedknowledge discovery and development or even protein sequencing andanalysis.

Thenecessity for Bioinformatics experiences has been triggered by theexplosion of publicly available genomic data resulting from the HumanGenome Project. The objective of this project determination of thesequence of the entire human genome (approximately three billion basepairs) was to be achieved by the year 2002. The science ofBioinformatics, which is the mutual association of molecular biologywith computer science, is so crucial to the use of genomicinformation in understanding of the human proteomics&shy&shy,diseases and in the identification of new molecular targets for drugdiscovery. In view of this, universities, research centers such theNational Center for Biotechnology Research and other significantgovernmental institutions and pharmaceutical firms have formedbioinformatics based-groups, consisting of computational biologistsand bioinformatics computer scientists. Such groups will besignificant in unravelling and identifying the mass of informationgenerated by large scale sequencing efforts underway in laboratoriesaround the world.

Method

The methods thatI will use are: SMART, scansite and NCBI:

SMART has twodifferent modes, these are genomic or normal, difference between thetwo is the protein database that are underlying. Protein database innormal SMART has major redundancy, using SMART in exploring domainarchitecture in genomes or if one wants to find domain counts ingenomes, the genomic mode has to be switched to another. Databasefor normal SMART contains stable ensemble proteomes, SP-TrEMBL, andswiss-prot. NCBI is an organization that helps people to accessseries of databases which are relevant to biomedicine andbiotechnology. The major databases are PubMed and Genbank whichhouse DNA sequences. Sancsite searches motifs in proteins that aremost likely phosphorylated by protein kinases and bind to domainslike SH2 domains, PDZ domains, 14-3-3 domains[ CITATION New15 l 1033 ].1

Results

The results: theprotein is Alkaline Phosphatase, and the organisms is human beings-Homo sapiens. The full results are indicated in the photos provided.

Figure1- Protein Sequence

Discussion

Alkalinephosphatase is an isozyme that plays a role on skeletalmineralizatoion. The catalytic activity that takes place happens inthe following way:

Phosphatemonoester +H20= an alcohol + phosphate. (PROSITE-prorule annotation)

The protein hasmany cofactor binding sites by similarity: MG2 + by similarity.

The short name ofAlkaline Phosphatase, tissue non-specific isozyme is AP-TNAP. Itsalternative name is alkaline phosphatase liver/kidney/bone isozymeGene namesi.

Alkalinephosphatase is also studied in pathology as it is involved in certaindiseases[ CITATION Deb15 l 1033 ].2 The disease has thefollowing description: it is a metabolic disease of the bones that ischaracterized by defects in skeletal mineralization as well asbiochemically. This is caused by deficient activities in tissues bynon-specific iso-enzyme of the alkaline phosphatase. There are fourforms of this disease and can be categorized into four according tothe age of onset: infantile, childhood, perinatal and adult type[ CITATION New15 l 1033 ].3Perinatal form is very severe and can be fatal, adult type is usuallymild but individuals may experience recurrent fractures, rickets,loss of teeth and osteomalacia[ CITATION Deb15 l 1033 ].4This disease can be manifested in dental features but not have anyskeletal manifestations. Mutations in this iso-enzyme have effectsand impacts on the individuals that are affected. Their genes mayalso get altered by the mutated isozymes.

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Bibliography

Bolarin, Debayo M. &quotBone specific alkaline phosphotase protein, total alkaline phosphotase activity and lactase dehydrogenase in sera of patients with sickle cell disease.&quot Haemotologia, 2015: 51-56.

&quotNews and Views.&quot Bioinformatics, 2015: 248-254.

1 &quotNews and Views.&quot Bioinformatics, 2015: 248-254.

2 Bolarin, Debayo M. &quotBone specific alkaline phosphotase protein, total alkaline phosphotase activity and lactase dehydrogenase in sera of patients with sickle cell disease.&quot Haemotologia, 2015: 51-56.

3 &quotNews and Views.&quot Bioinformatics, 2015: 248-254.

4 Bolarin, Debayo M. &quotBone specific alkaline phosphotase protein, total alkaline phosphotase activity and lactase dehydrogenase in sera of patients with sickle cell disease.&quot Haemotologia, 2015: 51-56.