Brazil Brazil

BRAZIL 4

Brazil

Brazil

1.Since its independence, Brazil has experimented with different kindsof electoral systems ranging from single to multimember districts. Ithas had a proportional representation with different kinds offormulas. In the periods 1985-1994, the country was mainlycharacterized by fluidity in the party politics. The fluidity was dueto emergence of many parties as well as migration of legislatorsbetween the formed parties. Nonetheless, the situation was laterovercome as the competition for presidency acquired a new format. In2014, Brazil conducted another election and the following table is asummary of the results(International Institute of Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2015,1).

The following is a summary of the Brazilian 2014 presidentialelection results

Registered electors

142,822,046

Voters

115,122,883

Blank votes

4,420,489

Invalid votes

6,678,592

Valid votes

2

Source:Federal Election Commission data (TSE)

The following is a summary of the votes attained by the Brazilian 2014 presidential candidates.

Candidate

Votes

&nbsp%

&nbspDilma (PT – PT / PMDB / PSD / PP / PR / PROS / PDT / PC do B / PRB)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp43,267,668

&nbsp41.6&nbsp

&nbspAécio Neves (PSDB – PSDB / PMN / SD / DEM / PEN / PTN / PTB / PTC / PT do B)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp34,897,211

&nbsp33.5&nbsp

&nbspMarina Silva (PSB – PHS / PRP / PPS / PPL / PSB / PSL)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp22,176,619

&nbsp21.3&nbsp

&nbspLuciana Genro (PSOL)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp1,612,186

&nbsp1.5&nbsp

&nbspPastor Everaldo (PSC)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp780,513

&nbsp0.8&nbsp

&nbspEduardo Jorge (PV)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp630,099

&nbsp0.6&nbsp

&nbspLevy Fidelix (PRTB)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp446,878

&nbsp0.4&nbsp

&nbspZé Maria (PSTU)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp91,209

&nbsp0.1&nbsp

&nbspEymael (PSDC)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp61,250

&nbsp0.1&nbsp

&nbspMauro Iasi (PCB)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp47,845

&nbsp0.0&nbsp

&nbspRui Costa Pimenta (PCO)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp12,324

&nbsp0.0&nbsp

Source:&nbspFederal Election Commission data (TSE)

After the elections, the two top candidates went for an election run-off as indicated in the table below.

Candidate

Votes

&nbsp%

&nbspDilma (PT – PT / PMDB / PSD / PP / PR / PROS / PDT / PC do B / PRB)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp54,501,118

&nbsp51.6&nbsp

&nbspAécio Neves (PSDB – PSDB / PMN / SD / DEM / PEN / PTN / PTB / PTC / PT do B)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp51,041,155

&nbsp48.4&nbsp

&nbspSource: Federal Election Commission data (TSE)

&nbsp

3.Brazilian electoral system and political system have various detailsthat regulate different issues from candidates’ nomination to seatsallocation. However, on the parties and the part systems, Brazilianhas the highest rates of party switching all over the world. Theswitching is prompt by electoral opportunities, ideological conflict,and personal disagreements. Brazilian parties have a limited but asignificant role in the elections. In other political systems in theworld, political parties provide campaign workers, electoralresources, consulting, and financing services. However, Brazilianpolitical parties play minimum or no active roles in the existinglegislative campaigns. Furthermore, party labels are used by votersas providers of information cues. Therefore, citizens vote on thebasis of the candidate’s reputation but not on partisan. TheBrazilian electoral system that is an open-list proportionalrepresentation makes the election process simple and easy (Ranulfo2015, par 1-9).

Bibliography

InternationalInstitute of Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2015,Voterturnout data for Brazil’,International Institute of Democracy and Electoral Assistance,viewed28 April 2015, &lthttp://www.idea.int/vt/countryview.cfm?id=30&gt.

Ranulfo,&nbspMC, 2015, ‘The2014 Elections and the Brazilian Party System’, Bras.Political Sci. Rev.&nbspvol.9&nbspno.1&nbspSãoPaulo,&nbspviewed28 April 2015,&lthttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1981-38212015000100093&ampscript=sci_arttext&gt

Brazil Brazil

BRAZIL 6

Brazil

Brazil

1.Since its independence, Brazil has experimented with different kindsof electoral systems ranging from single to multimember districts. Ithas had a proportional representation with different kinds offormulas. In the periods 1985-1994, the country was mainlycharacterized by fluidity in the party politics. The fluidity was dueto emergence of many parties as well as migration of legislatorsbetween the formed parties. Nonetheless, the situation was laterovercome as the competition for presidency acquired a new format. In2014, Brazil conducted another election and the following table is asummary of the results(International Institute of Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2015,1).

Thefollowing is a summary of the Brazilian 2014 presidential electionresults

Registered electors

142,822,046

Voters

115,122,883

Blank votes

4,420,489

Invalid votes

6,678,592

Valid votes

2

Source:Federal Election Commission data (TSE)

The following is a summary of the votes attained by the Brazilian 2014 presidential candidates.

Candidate

Votes

&nbsp%

&nbspDilma (PT – PT / PMDB / PSD / PP / PR / PROS / PDT / PC do B / PRB)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp43,267,668

&nbsp41.6&nbsp

&nbspAécio Neves (PSDB – PSDB / PMN / SD / DEM / PEN / PTN / PTB / PTC / PT do B)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp34,897,211

&nbsp33.5&nbsp

&nbspMarina Silva (PSB – PHS / PRP / PPS / PPL / PSB / PSL)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp22,176,619

&nbsp21.3&nbsp

&nbspLuciana Genro (PSOL)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp1,612,186

&nbsp1.5&nbsp

&nbspPastor Everaldo (PSC)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp780,513

&nbsp0.8&nbsp

&nbspEduardo Jorge (PV)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp630,099

&nbsp0.6&nbsp

&nbspLevy Fidelix (PRTB)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp446,878

&nbsp0.4&nbsp

&nbspZé Maria (PSTU)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp91,209

&nbsp0.1&nbsp

&nbspEymael (PSDC)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp61,250

&nbsp0.1&nbsp

&nbspMauro Iasi (PCB)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp47,845

&nbsp0.0&nbsp

&nbspRui Costa Pimenta (PCO)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp12,324

&nbsp0.0&nbsp

Source:&nbspFederal Election Commission data (TSE)

After the elections, the two top candidates went for an election run-off as indicated in the table below.

Candidate

Votes

&nbsp%

&nbspDilma (PT – PT / PMDB / PSD / PP / PR / PROS / PDT / PC do B / PRB)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp54,501,118

&nbsp51.6&nbsp

&nbspAécio Neves (PSDB – PSDB / PMN / SD / DEM / PEN / PTN / PTB / PTC / PT do B)&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp51,041,155

&nbsp48.4&nbsp

&nbspSource: Federal Election Commission data (TSE)

&nbsp

2.0Effective number of Parties (ENP) calculations: Based on the firstelection and Run off

Share of Vote

Square of Share of Vote

Run off situation

Dilma

0.416

0.173056

(0.516)2

Aécio Neves

0.335

0.112225

(0.484)2

Marina Silva

0.213

0.045369

Luciana Genro

0.015

0.000225

Pastor Everaldo

0.008

0.000064

Eduardo Jorge

0.006

0.000036

&nbspLevy Fidelix

0.004

0.000016

Zé Maria

0.001

0.000001

Mauro Iasi

0.000

0.0000

Rui Costa Pimenta

0.000

0.0000

CalculatingENP based on Sartori’s formula

ENP=1/∑(SI)2 Where ∑=Sum of SI= Proportionalnumber of party seats (Nyblade and O’Mahony, 2010, 6)

Therefore

ENPP=1/(0.173056+0.112225+0.045369+0.000225+0.000064+0.000036+0.000016+0.000001)

ENPP=1/(0.330992)ENP=3.0212210567

TheENP indicated above is purely based on the first round electionhowever, considering that the elections proceeded to a run-off then:

ENP=1/(0.266256+0.234256) =1.99795409501

3.Characterization of Brazil Party System

Basedon Sartori’s formula of calculating ENP, Brazil can be classifiedas both a two party system and a moderate multiparty system. Purelybasing the analysis on the first round 2014 elections, Brazilian hasa two party system (Nybladeand O’Mahony, 2010, 25).However, since the winner could not be decided on the first roundhence the need for a runoff, Brazil had an ENP value of 1.99 therebyqualifying her to be a two party state. Nevertheless, the highpossibility of coalitional forces changes the whole scenario.

Bibliography

InternationalInstitute of Democracy and Electoral Assistance, (2015),Voterturnout data for Brazil’,International Institute of Democracy and Electoral Assistance,viewed28 April 2015, &lthttp://www.idea.int/vt/countryview.cfm?id=30&gt.

Nyblade,B. O’Mahony, A (2010) ‘Policymakingand the Number of Parties in Legislatures’. AnnualMeetings of the Midwest Political Science Association,Viewed 30 April 2015

&lthttp://faculty.arts.ubc.ca/omahony/NybladeOMahony–100721.pdf&gt