CHINESE ONE CHILD POLICY
One Child Policy
This is a population control policy imposed on the People of theRepublic of China, under the official mandate of family planningpolicy. This system was established in by the China government in1978 to improve social, political and economic matters in China. Thispolicy restricts couples living in urban areas to bear one child, butit is lenient to the rural couples, minority groups, and parent withspecial cases. The implementation of the one-child policy was in thewake of improved population growth of China, which accounts toone-fifth of the total world population. China’s land mass is equalto that of United States, but China’s population is five times thatof United States. Considering this population with the arable land,the economy of the country was falling. As a result, theadministration of the China instituted a policy of family planning inorder to control the population.
The extremes of one child policy were in such levels that thegovernment played a role in China’s bedroom issues. Moreover, thegovernment enforced the policy by imposing fines on the families thatdespised it using the criteria of the family earnings. This policy,however, has not prevented China’s couple from having more than onechild. Some couples are reportedly bearing more than one. The wealthyfamilies pay a certain fee to the government in order to be grantedpermission to bear a second child. Even though, families with morethan one child do not acquire same benefits as those with one child.
Despite improving the economy and the lowering the poverty level ofthe Republic of China, this policy has some controversies. Forinstance, the policy has led to increasing in forced abortions, poorinfants’ development, female infanticide, low health care,underreporting of births, and gender imbalances.
One Child Policy is strongly imposed in the urban areas than therural areas. Families in the rural areas can apply to bear a secondchild if the first child is a girl, has some disabilities, isretarded, or have some mental challenges. Moreover, should plan togive birth to second child emerge it should be within a space of atleast four years from the birth of the first child. A parent who borechildren outside China do not fall within these regulations providedtheir children do not acquire China citizenship. Similarly, parentsreturning from abroad are not restricted from having a second child.
The family planning agencies collects maintenance fee annually fromevery family in the urban areas. If a child is born with a givenquota of the year, fine is imposed on the family’s annual income ortaken from peasant income generated by the rural families. Concerningthis trend, a child born either year ago is fined based on the incomeestimates at the child’s time of birth but not on for the currentyear. Moreover, parents must pay for their child’s education aswell as the family’s healthcare. Couples with more than one childpay for these services based on the proportion of their families(China eases one-child policy, 2013).
One child policy has altered the Chinese way of life by restricting acouple to have one child. This situation was a different story fortyyears ago where some families would bear more than five children.This policy accelerated delayed marriages and at the same timecontrolled the birth rates. The policy has facilitated improvement inthe women education. As a result, the level of illiteracy has beendecreasing in many families since parents can afford to pay theschool fee for one child without many struggles. The society is alsochanging from the traditional perception of focusing on the boychild, and now it considers even the girl’s education. As a resultof educating women, they can now afford to take jobs that appeared tobe entitled to men alone. In addition, women can afford better healthcare, a situation that was a nightmare in the former days.
The Chinese government has created incentives to make the one-childpolicy appealing. These include paying for treatments to a familywith one child, paid maternity leaves of three years, paid healthcare to the family, sponsored child education, preferential housingand good pensions for the retired couples. However, defying thisfamily planning policy is considered a criminal offense, hence heftypenalties are imposed. For instance, the policy requires the secondchild to pay the twenty-five percent of the income annually to thegovernment up to a period of 5 years. In case there is a third childthe two should pay thirty percent of their earning to the governmentannually up to a period of three years. In some regions, theregulations do not recognize the second child since the child cannotbe registered (China`s Plan Flawed But Courageous, 2010). Therefore,it means that the child would require government intervention to joinschool and in marriage.
Possible Social Problems
Some researches indicate that single children exhibit positivecharacteristics. For instance, it was observed that they possess highacademic performance, good self-expression and warm personality.These attributes are linked with the care and attention given tothese children since they are manageable to the parents. Moreover,single children are more confident than children with siblings withproper adjustments among peers (China formally eases one-childpolicy, 2013).
However, some researchers provide conflicting information on thisarea. They indicate that the positive influence depicted by thesingle children are not adjusting factor to child growth anddevelopment of a child. For real, there are many factors thatdetermine the development of a child. The movie, China relaxes in onechild policy (2013) have indicated that the bringing up of a singlechild in the family could trigger discontent and anxiety to thatchild. Above this, discontent could multiply within the child,causing negative consequences. The indulgence of one child could leadto the creation of “small emperors.” People are worried that theone-child policy could accelerate the creation of a population withawkward social characteristics. In general, children with siblingshave the opportunity to share amongst themselves their social andacademic developments, an advantage that lacks with the singlechildren. Still, single children possess the self-seeking behaviorsexpecting to acquire more attention from their parents. As a result,parents tend to treat this child more diligently. The child blendfrom this rearing style will be more reliant to the parents ratherthan being independent. The above reasons are leading cause of theviolation of the one-child policy by the wealthy families. They wantto raise happy families, where the siblings can take charge of thefamily properties. They consider leaving numerous wealth to a singlechild, less sensible. However, the government doing everythingpossible to ensure that the one-child policy is embraced.
China Formally Eases One Child Policy (China News). Wall StreetJournal. Eastern Edition (0099-9660) Areddy, James yr 2013.
China Formally Eases One Child Policy (China News). Wall StreetJournal. Eastern Edition (0099-9660) Burkitt, Laurie yr 2013.
China Relaxes its One Child Policy Produced by AustralianBroadcasting Corporation (New York, NY: Filmmakers Library, 2006), 23mins.
China: One Child Policy produced by Australian BroadcastingCorporation (New York, NY: Filmakers Library, 2006), 23 mins.
China`s one-child policy: the government`s massive crime againstwomen and unborn babies: hearing before the Subcommittee on Africa,Global Health, and Human Rights of the Committee on Foreign Affairs,House of Representatives, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, firstsession, September 22, 2011.
China`s Plan Flawed but Courageous: Jeremy Nathans Science 17December 2010: 1625.