Diabetes type1



is a life-long condition that causes a person blood sugar (glucose)level to become too high. Insulin produced by the pancreas isresponsible for controlling amount of glucose in the blood. Type1diabetes is where the pancreas does not produce any insulin, andusually affects 10% of the people and develops early in a person’slife, usually during childhood (Levy, 2011). The lack of insulinmeans that glucose stays in blood and is not used as fuel for energy,it occurs because of the body being unable to produce insulin thatmoves glucose out of the blood and into your cells to be used forenergy. Without insulin, the body breaks down its own fat and muscle,resulting in weight loss, leading to diabetes ketoacidiosis, wherebloodstream becomes acidic and dangerous levels of dehydrationoccurs.

Diabetesketoacidiosis is a serious diabetes complication where the bodyproduces excess blood acids and causes diabetic coma or even death.The body begins to burn fat for energy when the cells do not get theglucose they need for energy, it produces ketones, which arechemicals that the body creates when it breaks down body fat to usefor energy. Glucose the body’s normal source of energy when it doesnot produce insulin then the body helps it. Ketones build accumulatesin the blood, making it more acidic, a warning sign that thediabetes is out of control or that one is getting sick (Levy, 2011).Because type one diabetes is usually because of lack of insulin inthe body and ketones is the one that is making up for this, then thatis the reason that its ketoacidiosis is more prone to type onediabetic as opposed to type2.

Insulin isusually taken in order to control the blood sugar levels in the bodythat in turn help the body use glucose for energy (Ladd, Altshuler &ampMedical Library Association. 2013). There are three groups of insulinthat include animal, human and analogues .Nowadays people mostly usehuman insulin and insulin analogues with a small number preferring touse animal insulin, as they believe it works better for them. Insulinis characterized by onset (how quickly they act), duration (how longbefore they wear off), peak (how long to achieve maximum impact),concentration, route of delivery (whether injected under skin orgiven intravenously).

The type ofinsulin and recommendation for combination include, the Rapid-actinganalogues, its injected just before meals and have a peak action ofbetween 0 to 3hours, they last between two to five hours and lastlong enough for meals which they are taken. In addition, thelong-lasting analogues, they are injected once or twice a day toprovide background insulin lasting up to 24hours they do not need tobe taken with food, as they do not have a peak action (Ladd,Altshuler, &amp Medical Library Association. 2013). The verylong-acting analogues, they provide background insulin for up to42hours and are suitable for use for people who are not able toinject themselves, also they can be injected once every 42hous, thereis still need to inject them daily, they don’t need to be takenwith food as they don’t have a peak action.

Short-actinginsulin, injected 15-30minutes before a meal to cover the rise inblood glucose levels that occur after eating, they have a peak actionof 2-6hours and lasts up to 8hours. Medium and long acting insulinare taken once or twice a day to provide background insulin orcombination with short-acting insulin or rapid-acting analogues withpeak activity of between four and 12hours and lasts up to 30hours.Mixed Insulin, which is a combination of medium and short actinginsulin. Finally, mixed analogue is a combination of medium-actingand rapid-acting monologue.


Levy, D. (2011).Type 1 diabetes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ladd, D. L.,Altshuler, A., &amp Medical Library Association. (2013). TheMedical Library Association guide to finding out about diabetes: Thebest print and electronic resources.