Discussion Board Sub-processes of Analogical Reasoning

DiscussionBoard: Sub-processes of Analogical Reasoning


Sub-Processesof Analogical Reasoning

Theanalogy is an important process that plays a critical role ininstruction and learning. Analogical reasoning occurs in five majorsub-processes that include representation, retrieval, mapping,adaptation, and induction. The first sub-process involves therepresentation of the problem that needs to be solved by analogy.According to Ding (2000) a problem must be represented first beforeit is addressed by analogy.

Thesecond sub-process is referred to as retrieval and involves therecovery of the analogous solution to the underlying problem from thelong-term memory (Ding, 2000). This means that, once the problem hasbeen represented, the analogy identifies and obtains the possiblesolution from one’s long-term memory.

Thethird sub-process, mapping, involves the matching of correspondingconcepts or elements in both domains. The matching can be done on allor some of relations that exist in the retrieved base domain to thetarget domain (Ding, 2000). This is considered as one of the mostcrucial and unique stages of the analogical reasoning.

Inthe fourth sub-process, adaptation, researchers holds that the firstsolution may, in some circumstances not be absolutely correct. Thismeans that the first solution should be tested and adapted in orderto ensure that it fits the situation (Ding, 2000).

Inthe last sub-processes, induction, the higher order schema should beinduced on the basis of the two domains in order to complete theprocess of analogical reasoning.

Howanimal communication differs from language


Theauditory sounds that animals make while communicating with eachindicates that their communication is totally different from thelanguage used by human being. Human beings use a language with fixednumber auditory sound units that are referred to as phonemes (Jose,2012). Phonemes are then combined to produce morphemes. Animals, onthe other hand, make auditory sounds that do not have fixed units.For example, the vocalization made by whale has dialects that differdepending on regions. In addition, the alarm calls made by Campbellmonkeys are distinguished from one group to the other depending onthe frequency of sound produced at the spear-nosed bats. Thisconfirms that, although animals produce the sound for the purposes ofcommunication, their vocalization does not undergo the two patterninglevels (phonemes and morphemes) that are found in human language.


Althoughchemical communication is among the least understood, it is a vitalmethod of communication that among animals. This type ofcommunication is limited to a few functions that include thedetection of resources (such as food) and predators. Differentanimals have the ability to detect various chemicals that arereleased by other animals in the environment and derive a meaningfrom those chemicals. Although olfactory communication enhancesanimal survival, it is considered as a closed system of communicationsince animals cannot use to communicate with each other about novelexperiences or events in the same way as human beings do with theiradvanced language (Jose, 2012).


Auto-communicationoccurs when the sender of a given signal acts as the receiver of thesame signal. This is accomplished when an animal sends a signal thatis then altered by the surround before it is received by the sameanimal. This is contrary to the interchangeability rule of thelanguage used by human beings where an individual sends and messageand receives the feedback from a different person (Jose, 2012).Therefore, auto-communication is common in animals and not in thehuman language.


Ding,L. (2000). Developingstructural representations: Their role in analogical reasoning.Nottingham: University of Nottingham.

Jose,M. (2012). The difference between animal and human communication. HubPages Incorporation.Retrieved April 17, 2015, fromhttp://johnsonmjose.hubpages.com/hub/The-difference-between-animal-and-human-communication