Domesticviolence can be defined as any abusive, forceful, threat or evencoercion by word or act inflicted by a member of a domestic unit or afamily to another within the same set up. Domestic violence can bephysical, sexual or psychological(Hegarty et al, 364).Domestic violence has had a long history in the society given thedifferences that arise among individuals deemed to be cohabiting orrelated in a given way. Domestic violence is a considered severeoffence in most of the countries globally. In the recent past,domestic violence has been treated as real problem given the numerousnegative effects that it harbors on family members and the communityin general. However, most of the affected individuals are women giventhat they are prone to the causes. Some of the factors thatfacilitate occurrence of domestic violence can be likened to theeffects of war. For instance, some causes include unstable socialstructure, slow economic growth and lack of proper education. Thispaper looks at the various types of domestic violence, their effectsas well as the causes. Finally, the paper winds by looking at thevarious channels through which domestic violence can be addressed andmanaged.
Overa long period of time, there are various forms of domestic violencethat have been witnessed in various parts of the world. However,there are five main categories or types of domestic violence. Theseforms of abuse include emotional, physical, sexual, economic, honourbased and female genital mutilation(McGuigan & Pratt, 870).In most parts of the world, physical and sexual abuses have been themajor forms.
Emotionalor psychological abuse has been seen to take place through verbal ornonverbal means. In most cases, the perpetrator aims at disregardingor rather demeaning the independence and confidence of the victim. Inthis case, the victim is made to comply and their ability to leave islimited. The verbal forms include yelling, shaming or even callingnames. Other non-verbal forms are like isolation, intimidation oreven threats of violence (McGuigan& Pratt, 873).
Physicalabuse entails direct actions that target the body of an individualmainly causing physical harm to such persons. The behaviours thatcome under this form of abuse include pinching, kicking, pushing,slapping, hitting, biting, burning, strangling as well as pulling outhair.
Sexualabuse is the most common type of domestic violence mainly witnessedin abusive relationships. In most cases, it occurs due to ignoranceof women’s right with a few of such cases reported on the men’sside. It has been defined as situation in which an individual or apartner in a relationship is coerced to take part in unwanted,degrading or unsafe sexual activity. Several researches haveestablished that this form of abuse is directly related to physicaland psychological abuse (Hegartyet al, 366).
Economicor financial abuse is a common form of domestic violence though nottaken keen by most members of households. This form of abuse aims atlimiting a victim’s ability to access financial aid (McGuigan& Pratt 875).It could entail control of finances, withholding money or creditcards, exploitation of assets, sabotaging one’s job, forcingsomeone to unreasonably account for money spent.
Honourbased Violence is a type of domestic abuse which occurs when anindividual deemed to be inferior does not call his elders or thosedeemed to be superior, honour. Those who do not abide by this code orrules are punished for bringing shame to family. In most cases thispunishment arise from cases of rejection of a forced marriage,pregnancy out of marriage, seeking divorce and use of inappropriatedress or make-up.
Domesticviolence has various adverse effects on members of a domestic unit.In most cases, these effects are directly related with the forms ortypes of violence. It is established that a number of children areexposed to domestic violence annually. These children are affectedduring their upbringing. Many a times, the children suffer in theirdevelopmental and psychosomatic welfare. This form of violence alsoimpact on the emotional, social and behavioral development of a child(Sternberg et al., 1). Children who are exposed are seen to haveincreased aggressiveness as they develop. Some changes are also notedon the manner in which the children socialize with friends and familymembers. In extreme cases, depression, mental health disorders andemotional insecurity are witnessed. Developments of attitude, as wellas, cognition in schools are seen to develop in these children.
Thereare also some persistent health conditions that arise from variousforms of violence. These conditions include broken bones, bruises,head injuries, internal bleeding, pelvic pains, and migraines. Theseeffects require proper medical attention and hospitalization. Victimswho undergo these abuses during their pregnancy face greater risk ofmiscarriage, injury to the fetus or demise of the fetus, as well as,pre-term labor (Sternberg et al., 1).
Thereare various forms of psychological effects of domestic violence tothe victims. The victims who live with the perpetrators are said toundergo high amounts of stress, anxiety and fear. In most cases,these individuals are prone to suicide either during or after end oftheir relationship (McGuigan & Pratt 881).
Thereare many causes of violence witnessed worldwide. Some are biologicalothers are psychological while others are as a result of mentalillnesses. In biological, researchers have established that thefactors contributing to domestic violence are genetically inheritedor are as a result of brain dysfunction. According to those whoincline to psychological as the main cause personality qualities andcerebral description of the offender has been at centre stage. Someof the personality character includes sudden bursts of rage, poorimpulse control, and poor control of one’s self-esteems (Sternberget al., 1). Domestic violence has also been attributed to jealousy inwhich case a partner is either suspected of being unfaithful or hasplans to leave the relationship. In most cases, this is seen when apartner is excelling than the other. In some cases, it is seen to bedue to obsession to use power to control others.
Domesticviolence happens in instances where an individual committing it isunable to control themselves (Bancroft43). Usually most individuals who have committed the abusive acts arevictims themselves and have experienced the same in their lives.Often, these individuals who commit the abusive acts feel that it isthe best way to control or have control over others. Theseindividuals tend to give excuses for their acts so that their actionsare seen to be right or acceptable (Bancroft47).
Gamblingis also a cause of domestic violence given that individuals whogamble are always in need of more money. More money is necessary forthen to continue and sustain gambling. Most of these individuals endup committing violence to their spouses especially wives in order toget money for gambling. Additionally, poverty is also a seriousconcern and cause of domestic violence. Poverty could arise as aresult of loss of job.
Themanner and ways in which domestic violence is curbed and controlledin different societies differ. In some set ups, the response to theabuse is a joint effort of law enforcers, social services, and healthpractitioners(Thompson et al., 856).Traditionally, it was viewed as a family affair that does notincorporate government participation. However, it is now viewed inmost countries as a public matter that should be of interest to all.Therefore, it involves medical solutions, counselling, lawenforcement means as well as safety planning (Thompsonet al., 859).
Bancroft,Lundy, Jay G. Silverman, and Daniel Ritchie. The batterer as parent:Addressing the impact of domestic violence on family dynamics. Sagepublications, 2011.
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McGuigan,William M., and Clara C. Pratt. "The predictive impact ofdomestic violence on three types of child maltreatment." ChildAbuse & Neglect 25.7 (2001): 869-883.
Sternberg,Kathleen J., et al. "Effects of domestic violence on children`sbehavior problems and depression." Developmental psychology 29.1(1993): 44.
Thompson,Robert S., et al. "Identification and management of domesticviolence: A randomized trial11The full text of this article isavailable via AJPM Online at <http://www.elsevier. comlocate/ajpmonline>."American journal of preventive medicine 19.4 (2000): 253-263.