Final Module 8

FinalModule 8

1. Psychoanalyst

Psychoanalysttherapy is based on the work and theories of Sigmund Freud. It is oneof the most modern therapeutic approaches although mental healthclients misunderstand it. It focuses on the unconscious mindinfluences of behaviours and thoughts. It focuses on the earlychildhood behaviours and their contributions to the status of theclient. Therefore, for a patient who is seeking help for anincapacitating phobia towards members of the opposite sex, thetherapist can associate the client’s current feeling with his orher childhood feelings. Surprisingly, in the whole solving process,the therapist might fail to discuss the current situation of theclient. The therapist will spend time listening to the client as heor she talks about the past life. Psychoanalytic therapy is alsoknown as “the talking cure” since the patient is allowed to sayanything concerning his or her problems. According to Collin and DKPublishing (2012), a problem shared is a problem have solved. In themeantime, the therapist tries to discover significant patterns thatcontribute to the client’s phobic situations. Psychoanalysts arguethat childhood unconscious feelings, events, and thoughts contributeto maladaptive behaviours and mental illness. In addition, thepsychoanalytic therapeutic approach also uses other techniques suchas role-play, free associations, and dream interpretation. Thistherapeutic approach is advantageous because it offersnon-judgemental and empathetic environment hence, the client is safeto reveal his or her feelings, thoughts and actions that led tophobia in the first place.

2. Client-centredtherapist

In1941s and 1950s, Carl Rodgers, a human psychologist, developed anon-directive form of talk therapy called person-centred therapy,also known as client-centred therapy. Today, client-centred therapyin the most used therapeutic approach. If a client seeks help forincapacitating phobia to members of the opposite sex from theclient-centred therapist, then, the psychotherapist would centre moreon the client feelings in details. Specifically, the therapist wouldconsider the client feelings before, during, and after the phobicencounters to come up with the healing procedure. In addition, thetherapist will create an environment that is considerate,conformable, as well as non-judgemental. Client-centred therapyfollows two key elements for it to be successful. Firstly, it isnon-directive. This means that the clients lead the discussions, andthe therapist do not steer him or her in a particular direction.Secondly, the approach emphasises on the unconditional positiveregard. In other words, the therapist always shows support andcomplete acceptance of the client issue. On this case, the therapistwill show the client that opposite sex phobia is normal and one canovercome it. In addition, the client is given a chance to express hisor her feelings and reactions during the phobic encounters. Further,the therapist is likely to share his or her feelings to enable him orher develop the same feeling in the client. According to Stanfield,Cross, and Hui (2012), people experience the problem because they areused to conditional support that is the support is only offeredafter conforming to certain expectations. Therefore, whenclient-centred therapist creates an unconditional positive regardenvironment, the client can express his or her feelings without thefear or rejection.

3. BehaviourTherapist

Behaviouraltherapy focuses on the principles of behaviourism. It focuses on whatpeople learn from the environment surrounding them. The primary goalof the behavioural therapy is to reinforce desirable behaviours whileeliminating maladaptive and unwanted behaviours. It utilises thetechnique of reinforcement and punishment to amend behaviours. In thecase where a client goes to the behaviour therapist to seek help forincapacitating phobia toward opposite sex, the therapist is likely todiscuss the entire encounter of phobia, before, during, and after theexperience. Then, he or she can break it down, thought by thought,feeling by feeling, emotion by emotion, choosing which one toreinforce and the ones to eliminate. Later, the therapist is likelyto expose the client to a stimulus to retrain his or her brain, aswell as develop different response toward people of the opposite sex.Weiten, Dunn, and Hammer (2012), bases behavioural therapy on operantconditioning and classical conditioning theories. Unlike othertherapies that are rooted in insight, behavioural therapy is based onactions. In the above case, the therapist is likely to use the samestrategies that led to opposite sex phobia to eliminate it.Psychologists argue that the problem is the behaviour itself, and thesolution is to teach the client new behaviours that can reduce theproblem. In other words, the development of the problem is as aresult of old learning while new learning replace old learninghence, solving the problem.

4. GestaltTherapist

Gestalttherapy focuses on the human mind and behaviours. Max Wertheimerdeveloped gestalt therapy from the response of Wilhelm Wundtstructuralism. In case of dealing with the phobia, the gestalttherapist talks to the client about their felt experiencesintensively. In addition, the therapist relates the inner feelingsand thoughts to the external feelings and thoughts. The therapistgives the client some time to talk out all the fears, as well asgiven control over their feelings to fight against the phobia. Themain aim of gestalt therapy is to create awareness. The gestalttherapist encourages the client to stay in “here and now.”Additionally, the therapist encourages emotional breakthroughs,sudden insights, and high feelings. According to Washburn (n.d),phobias are characterised by severity, duration, symptoms, andtriggers. Correspondingly, gestalt therapy is helpful in gaining newinsights into dealing with the phobia. Therefore, gestalt therapeuticapproach formulates a concrete plan to deal with phobic problems.

5. CognitiveTherapist

Cognitivetherapy (CT), also cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is apsychotherapeutic approach that enable patient to learn therelationship between their thoughts and behaviour. Most therapistsuse it to treat disorders such as addictions, depression, phobias,and anxiety. Generally, cognitive therapy is short-term and it aimsat helping patients to deal with a particular problem. In the casewhere a client has the phobia against people from the opposite sex,the best procedure that the therapist can use is to examine thoughtsand feelings prior each encounter. Next, both the client andtherapist can design new and corrective thought processes to enactjust before the phobic reaction starts. However, the process cannotbe based on feelings and emotion but logic (Rathus, 2007).Afterwards, the client should continue to practice the same processuntil the phobia encounters end. In the meantime, the therapist willtry to identify, as well as change destructive thoughts and feelingsthat lead to the negative influence behaviour (phobia in this case).Furthermore, the main goal of cognitive therapy is to teach theclient that it is impossible to control all aspect of life aroundthem, but they can control their interpretation and response towardsthem.


ModuleFour: Basic Principles of Learning and Memory

– Learning

Learningrefers to any relatively permanent change in behaviour resulting fromexperience. It becomes a major study in psychology in the twentiethcentury after the rise of behaviourism in the school of thoughts(Rathus, 2007). Up to date, learning remains a significant concept invarious areas of psychology such as educational, social, cognitive,and developmental psychology. Learning is importance in the life ofan American adult because it helps one to understand him or herself,learn more about other people, learn how to interact with otherpeople, gain appreciation of development in life, help to understandwhat is normal and what is not, among others things.

– OperantConditioning

Operantconditioning is an example of learning in which the consequences ofbehaviour lead to a change in the probability of the behaviour’soccurrence. It has either positive reinforcement or negativereinforcement. Positive reinforcement is a positive consequence ofbehaviours while negative reinforcement is a negative consequence ofbehaviours. Learning occurs through rewards and punishment forbehaviours. There are numerous examples of operant conditioningsurrounding an American adult. For instance, children may work hardto complete their homework in order to earn a reward from theirteachers or parents. Similarly, employers may also finish their taskin time with an aim to receive promotions or praises.

– HumanMemory

Humanmemory involves the abilities of preserving and recoveringinformation experienced or learnt. The study of human memory inpsychology is critical because it helps psychologists to learn howmemory create, store and retrieve information. Memory is an importantelement in human life, and it plays a significant role in life. Forinstance, it helps an adult to recall their childhood experiences. Inaddition, it provides self-sense and make up cumulative experiencesof life.

– TheRole of the Brain

Oneof the significant functions of the brain is to store information.The concept of the brain and its function is important in the studyof psychology because it helps psychologist to master their clientissues. According to Stanfield (2012), the brain controls the wholebody. Its plays other roles such as encoding memories for long-termstorage and retrieving information from long-term memory into workingmemory. Taking an example of a telephone operator, he or she answerscalls and directs them to the appreciate people. The brain enablesthe operator to send messages to their proper destination.

ModuleFive: Cognition, Intelligence, and development

– Language

Humanbeing uses language to communicate. English language has forty-fourphonemes. Phoneme andmorphemes are the smallest units of sound andmeaning respectively. The concept of language is importance in evenin small children who are learning to speak. Researchers have foundthat infants can differentiate sounds and read lips by the fourthmonth after birth. Further, language is imperative because itenhances communication and is useful for passing information.

– Intelligence

Intelligencerefers to the cognitive ability of an individual to understand life,as well as cope with the demands of daily living. Intelligence is animportant topic in psychology though it is a controversial issue. Forinstance, intelligence plays a significant role in policy decisionsat the academic institution, workplaces, and at homes.

– FourStages of Cognitive Development

Thestages of cognitive development include sensorimotor, preoperational,concrete operational and formal operational stages (Collin et al.,2012). The study of stages of cognitive development is importancebecause in enables individuals to make sense of life, develop theirfeelings and thoughts, develop cultural and social understandings,provide strategies to solve real problems, and foster divergent andflexible thinking.

ModuleSix: The Self

– Motivation

Motivationrefers to the factors that activate, guides, and maintains behaviourand give directions. Motivation is an important aspect of psychologyas well as in schools, business, and other issues of life. Forinstance, parents may motivate their children to do their homework orword hard in their studies. Some of the strength associated withmotivation topic is that it encourages employers to motivate theiremployees.

– Sexualmotivation

Sexualmotivation is a branch of motivation that resembles other primarymotives. It is highly external stimuli. It is influenced by learningto some extent of emotions. Sexual motivation is an important topicin psychology because psychologists can use the same knowledge in thefuture to help a patient with sexual motivation issues. Sexualmotivation applies in real life when

– Emotions

Emotionsare the experiences that give meaning, colour, and intensity inlives. An emotion is essential to psychology topic because it helppeople to understand different emotions, as well as how to deal withthem. For instance, people learn it is dangerous to react emotionallywhen faced with a hard situation. In the life of an average Americanlife, emotions play a vital role in day-to-day activities. Washburn(n.d), urges that every individual portray varieties of emotiondaily.

– Personality

Personalityare the ways that an individual acts, thinks, and feels hence,making him or her unique. Personality topic is important because ithelp to define someone based on the traits they possess. In reallife, people have a different personality and the study ofpersonality help individuals to appreciate other people personality.

ModuleSeven: Stress and Abnormal Behaviour

– Stress

Stressis reactions that trigger mental and physical equilibrium. The studyof stress is important in psychology because it helps the learners tolearn strategies to cope up with stress. Additionally, psychologistslearn to understand, as well as appreciate people living with stress.

– Causesof stress

Accordingto Rathus (2007), every human being faces stress at one time in theirlife. The two causes of stressors are external and externalstressors. The topic about causes of stress is significant because ithelps learners to avoid stresses. In addition, in case one sis facedwith stress, they have strategies to overcome them.

– Abnormalbehaviours

Abnormalbehaviour refers to those actions, feelings, and thoughts that areharmful to human being. Today, most people view abnormal behaviour asnatural rather than supernatural. This concept is important becauseit enables the learners to avoid these behaviours, as well as adoptother desirable behaviours.

– Mooddisorders

Mooddisorders are disturbances of positive or negative moods.Unfortunately, mood disorder may cause stress or even depressions.This topic is applicable to real life because learners are equippedwith strategies to avoid moods disorders that can lead to negativeconsequences.

ModuleEight: Therapies, Social Psychology, and Psychology Applied toBusiness and Other Professions

– Psychotherapy

Psychotherapyis the process of demonstrating, talking, and reinforcing to solvehuman problems. This topic helps the psychotherapist to help theclient tackle life problems such as mental illness or other sourcesof stress. In addition, it helps the psychotherapist to understandfeelings and thoughts of their client that influences theirbehaviours.

– Cognitive-Behaviour Therapists

Cognitivebehaviour therapists are psychotherapists who help clients to unlearntheir abnormal behaviours. In addition, they also help them to learnother adaptive ways of feeling, thinking, and acting. This topic issignificant in psychology because it equips the upcoming therapistwith all the information they need to know.

– Attitudes

Attitudesare beliefs that determine how an individual act and feel in acertain situation. Commonly, attitudes are learnt from directexperience and behaviours. McLeod (2012), define attitudes as thetendency to evaluate things according to various methods. In life,people have mixed attitudes toward a particular person or issue.

– Friendships

Friendshipis a social phenomenon that is based on the process of personperception. Although the process of person perception is complicated,it helps to evaluate people’s form of impression.


Collin,C., &amp DK Publishing, Inc. (2012). The psychology book. New York:DK Pub.

McLeod,S. (2008). Defence Mechanisms | Simply Psychology. Retrieved April23, 2015, from

Rathus,S. A. (2007). Psychology: Concepts &amp Connections. Australia:Thomson/Wadsworth.

Stanfield,P., Cross, N., &amp Hui, Y. H. (2012). Introduction to the healthprofessions. Burlington, MA: Jones &amp Bartlett Learning.

Washburn,M. (n.d.). &quotGestalt&quot Psychology and Motor Psychology. TheAmerican Journal of Psychology, 516-516.

Weiten,W., Dunn, D., &amp Hammer, E. Y. (2012). Psychology applied tomodern life: Adjustments in the 21st century. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.