Homosexuality

is the desire to be attracted to one’s own sex. A woman isattracted to another woman and is known as lesbian. A man isattracted to another man and is known as gay. was a sinand crime in the past most religions condemn it up to date. Therewere various attitudes toward homosexuality based on religion, legaland medical reasons. was totally ignored by theChristians in the past especially in Europe. Later, in the 12thcentury, people in Europe started to condemn it and even secludedhomosexuals from churches, terming the act as unnatural. Religiousteachings were incorporated in the legal laws and referred as sodomyin America. Any act of sex such as sex before marriage and worsehomosexuality was a criminal offence. Homosexual act was punishableby death. In 19thcentury, scientists such as those in medicine and psychiatry tried tojustify the acts of homosexuality by explaining it is caused bypathology. This paper will discuss whether homosexuality is inheritedor not. Various explanations have been used to explain whetherhomosexuality is a product of heredity or the way a person is broughtin the society.

Religiousbeliefs have for a long time held that homosexuality is a sin and acrime. Some of the scholars such as Richard von Krafft-Ebing feltthat homosexuality is a degenerative disease. In the 20thcentury, some of the scholars argued that homosexuality is inborn andthus not immoral. Others went ahead to disclose that people are bornbisexual and interactions with parents and others is what eventuallyturns them to either heterosexual or homosexual. This debate elicitsthe question: What thus causes homosexuality in a person? Thefollowing is a discussion of what actually influences homosexualityto people who are born like others (Rodgers 14).

Sexualorientation can be influenced by nature, nurture, as well as geneticpredisposition. Nature is both a person’s environment andsurrounding. There many theories from both sides that show how genesand physical environment can lure someone to be either heterosexualor homosexual (Greenberg et al 361). The question is to what extentgenetic makeup influences homosexuality. It is also essential to lookat how the environment on the other hand influence someone to behomosexual. Biologists argue that monkey and human children reared inthe same setting will totally bring out different characters. One thesame note, social theorists argue that even monozygotic twins developdifferent personalities when they mature thus it is not about thegenes. This brings out confusion in what actually causes someonesexuality. Sexuality is not a choice but emerges mostly at earlyadolescence and the social theorists argue that it is directlyinfluenced by someone’s upbringing. The following shows whether ornot homosexuality is caused by biological or the persons surrounding(Rodgers 17).

Biologistsargue that homosexuality is influenced by anatomy, genetics and theendocrine system. Kinsey scale of sexuality showed that men admittedto have sexual organism with their partners in the past but could notcall it homosexual instead referred it same sex relationships. KarenHooker in her psychological test determined that homosexuality is nota mental illness or a moral depravity it is a way that human beingsexpresses their love and sexuality (Johnson par. 3). Swaab in hisexamination of the brain discovered that a male portion of thehypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain forhomosexuality is twice the size of the heterosexual counterpart.Laura also discovered that the anterior commissar of the hypothalamusis significantly larger in homosexuals than the heterosexuals. Thetwo sections are not related in regulating the sexual behavior thusthey were less significant. LeVay in his study also discovered thatthe third inertial notch of the hypothalamus (INAH3) was three timeslarger in heterosexual than homosexuals (LeVay 9).

Thestudies concluded that being a homosexual or a heterosexual isentirely determined by the central neuronal of the brain. They agreedthat a person’s upbringing does not influence whether they arehomosexual or heterosexual. It is prenatal cerebral development andstructural differences that influence someone sexual behavior(Lehrman80).Another biological aspect on the neuron endocrines argues that sexualorientation is influenced by early levels of androgens on thedifferent neural structures. If a male is exposed to the androgens onthe relevant neural structures they will be masculine and beattracted to females. Females exposed to the same androgen will beaggressive and will be attracted to females too. Males who do notreceive the androgen have low sex drive and are usually willing toreceive it from other men (Johnson par. 5).

Testof identical twins and fraternal twins gives way to show the impactof genes on the overallsexual behavior. J. Michael and RichardPillard discovered that 52% of identical twins are self –identifiedhomosexuals, 22% of fraternal twins are also homosexuals while only5%of unrelated brothers are homosexuals. This shows that the morepeople are genetically linked the more likely both will exhibit thesame sexuality. Hamer conducted the same test to determine how theX-chromosome inherited from maternal lineage can influence thehomosexuality or heterosexuality of an individual. In his study hefound out that the 5genetic maker section of X-chromosome called Xq28which he termed as remarkable concordance. He observed there waslarge number of homosexuals emerging are from many family tree thathas a tendency of homosexuality. This only happened on the maternalside. With this information it is evident that genes of a certainbehavior can be transmitted from generations (Queen Mary par. 4).

Thetheory of superior heterozygote theory also states that the actualexpression of homosexuality is the result of homozygosity of thenon-expressed but actually present genes. The person’s geneticmakeup is heterozygote (one homosexual gene and one heterosexualgene). If the homosexual allele is passed to next generation throughthe X-chromosome the homosexuality becomes the phenotype. Motherspass the heterozygote to the next generation. The Y-chromosome isincapable of heterozygosis and thus homosexuality is linked to Xlinkage (Queen Mary par. 7).

Socialtheoristsarenot convincedthathomosexuality is becauseof genes in spiteof all theevidenceavailableandcontinueto arguethatitis as a resultof theenvironment.EarlyscholarssuchAristophanes believedthathomosexuality wasas a resultof men’sdesireto havelongtermfulfilmentof thesoul.Buttherelationshipbetweenmenandmenwereonlypracticedinthe communities thatallowedthem.Therelationshipswerebetween oldandyoungboysandthuswereseenas forcedrelationships(Phelan et al 4).Theparentalmanipulationtheoryshowshowparentinteractionwitha childcan leadto eitherbeinghomosexualorheterosexual.Itstatesthatoneortwoparentsworktocontroltheiroffspringin ordertopromotetheparentalgenes.Thisenablesgenestobetransferredto thenextgeneration.Parentsare supposedto pressuretheir childreninto thisheterosexualbehaviorandensuretheytransmitthegenes. Kin-selectiontheoryontheotherhandstatesthatitdoesnot matterwhatever genes are passedtotheoffspringby parentsbecauseas childrengrowtheywillinevitablyadapttothesebehaviorswith orwithout theirparents will.Aspeoplegrow,thatiswhentheyidentifytheirsexualprrefernceandfollowwhateverbehaviortheywanttohavein thelongrun(Lehrman81).

&nbspOneof thefactorsthat can contribute to homosexuality is a person`s kin. resultsfromone`ssiblings andrelatives.Homosexualsneverhavea familyoftheirownandendupraisingtheirrelatives&nbspwithwhomtheysharegenes. To compensatelackoftheirownfamilytheydedicatetheirtimetofamilymemberstobeacceptedbythecommunity.Communitiesalsoperpetuatehomosexualityby allowinggroupselection,wherepeoplehavefewchildrenandcometogethertoraisesuchchildrentogether.Homosexualsalsoreduce thenumberoffightsbroughtaboutbyheterosexualmarriages (Barash 97).Sexualattractionsbyfemalestohomosexualmeniswhathasperpetuatedthebehavior.Women findthemenattractive,cooperativeandempathetic,unliketheheterosexualswhoareopenlyaggressiveandpredatory.Samesexgenes hastheadvantagesof greaterintelligenceandthusthistemptspeopletowanttohave thesechildrenwithhomosexualgenes. Femaleswith homosexualgenes givebirthtoman children withfemalesgrowingto morefemininebrainsandmalesgrowingto lessmasculinechildren(Barash100).

Freudstatesthatthe mindis whatcontrolshumanfunction.The mind is a complexenergysystemandinfluencesthehumanmindunconsciously.Freud believedallhuman beingsare innately bisexualandthattheybecomeheterosexualorhomosexualas resultoftheirexperienceswith parentsothers.Hebelievedthatvariationsinsexualdevelopmentleadtothisbehavior.&nbspHomosexualityisa reparative offailedheterosexuality individuals.Homosexualstendtofindsexualpleasuretheycouldnotgetfromotherheterozygotistrelationships.When people cannot get satisfaction from their heterosexual partners,they may end up becoming homosexual and find satisfaction inrelationships with members of the same sex (Greenberg et al 362).

Inconclusion,homosexualityisachoicesomeonemakes without necessarilybeinginfluencedbyanyone. Everyindividualhasboththegenes ofhomosexualityandheterosexuality buttheonethat manifeststhantheotherisdeterminedbytheenvironmentoneisbroughtup in.Peopleinfamilieswhere homosexuality is practiced are unable to bringouttheactualmasculinityandfemininityandthus becomeuncomfortablearoundpeopleoftheothersex.Thisin turnleadstohomosexuality.From the above debate, it is evident that homosexuality is caused bygenetic predisposition. However, it is evident that nurture and theenvironment in which a person is brought up have an impact on whetherthey will become homosexual or not. Based on the analysis of thispaper, homosexuality can be regarded as a hereditary aspect, whichcan also be acquired from interactions with other people.

WorksCited

Barash,David P. Homomysterious: evolutionary puzzles of human nature.New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.

Greenberg,Jerrold S, Clint E. Bruess, and Sarah C. Conklin. Exploringthe Dimensions of Human Sexuality.Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett, 2011. Print.

Johnson,Ryan. :nature or Nurture. Web.29 Apr. 2015

http://allpsych.com/journal/homosexuality/#.VUCWlfA-_Mx

LeVay,Simon. Gay,Straight, and the Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation.New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print. Lehrman,Nathaniel. “: Some Neglected Considerations.”Journalof American Physicians and Surgeons 10.3(2005): 80-82.

QueenMary. Homosexualbehavior due to genetics and environmental factors.Web. 29 Apr. 2015.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-06/qmuo-hbd062608.php

PhelanJames, Whitehead Neil and Sutton Phillip. “What Research Shows:Narth’s Response to the APA Claims on .” Journalof Human Sexuality 1.4(2009): 1-10.

RodgersJoseph, Rowe David and Miller Warren. Geneticinfluence on human fertility and sexuality: theoretical and empiricalcontributions from the biological and behavioral sciences.Washington, D.C.: Spring science &amp Business media, 2012. Print