Human Rights and the Humanitarian Law

HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE HUMANITARIAN LAW 4

HumanRights and the Humanitarian Law

HumanRights and the Humanitarian Law

Theinternationalcommunityenjoystheprotectionof majorbodieswhenitcomesto theobservanceof humanrightsboth in timesof conflictandpeace.Despite manycountrieshavinginternationalprovisionsthat safeguard thewellbeingof thecitizens,theyare partof theinternationaldeclarationsthat complement their laiddown rules.Both theinternationalandlocallawsworktowards thesamemandatebutwith a differentapproach.Locallawsmay be customized by thegovernmentsforthem to be applicablein thestate.However,humanrightsandthehumanitarianprovisionare universalpractices.

Layinginsighton thetwo will helpus deducesomeof their differencesandsimilarities.Startingwith thehumanrights,theyare universallibertiesenjoyedby allindividualsregardlessof their raceandcountryof originbecausetheyare theconceptionof theinternationalcommunity.Theneedto haveaninternationalplatformto definetherightsof allindividualsmaterializedin 1948 through theUnited NationsAssembly.Followingthedeclaration,individualcountriesreceivedthetaskto integratetheselawsinto their domesticconstitutions.Unlike othertreaties,theselawsare legallyabidingby anycountrythat fallunder theUnited Nations (Provost, 2002).

Humanrightsare inseparablewith thecitizens.Therefore,nogovernmenteffortcan denyits peoplethebasicinternationalstandardswithout contraveningthelaw.Theprivilegesare alsoself-executing, andanypoliticalinstitutionthat doesnot supportthem is subjectto internationalcriticism.Thechaptersconstitutingthislaware not changeableby a domesticestablishmentunless revisedby thesameassemblythat helpedto instituteit.

Theinternationalhumanitarianlawwasa resultof severalconventionsthat providesforthedesirabletreatmentifindividualscaughtup in conflicts.TheGeneva Convention outlinesthe shielding of innocent peopleagainstthepangsof thewarring parties.Theconventionreceivesthebackingof theHague Convention that providesfortheuseof acceptablemeansof wagingwar.Somemethodswith detrimentaleffectson theotherparty,as wellas thevictimswithout interestin theaggression,are not acceptable.Itbindsthepartiesin conflictagainst extremism of meansduring thewar(Provost, 2002).

Theinternationallaws,however,differin variousways.First,humanrightsare applicableall thetimeregardlessthestateof a nation.On theotherhand,thehumanitarianlawis mostlyapplicableto thewar.Secondly,there is integrationbetween humanrightsandthedomesticconstitutionsas opposedto thehumanitarianlawthat is usuallysubjectto theinternationallegalbodies’enforcement.Asa standardtreatmentof humanbeings,humanrightsare not debatable,andtheyenjoya universalsupport.On theotherhand,there is an argumentforthestandardof treatmentgivento theprisonersof warandthepublicin warzonesas providedforin thehumanitarianlaw(Provost, 2002).

Dueto thepossibilityof somepartiesto contravenetheserules,theinternationalcommunityhas setup enforcementbodiesto givedirectionorprosecutetheculpritsof thecontradiction.There are three maincourtstasked with thedutyof enforcingtheserule.Thefirstoneis theInternational Court of Justice that actsas thelegalcourtof theUnited Nations. Itsettleslegaldisputesbetween statesas wellas givingadvisoryopinions.Thesecondis theInternational Criminal Court that triesthetries individualchargedwith criminalchargesagainst humanityfrom themembercountries.Finally,theInternational Centre forTransitional Justice has thetaskof buildingthecivictrustacross theglobeas wellas protectingthehumanrights(Provost, 2002). Theintegratedeffortsof thesecourtssupportthevalueof lifeandhumandignity.

References

Provost,R. (2002). Internationalhuman rights and humanitarian law(Vol. 22). Cambridge University Press: United Kingdom.