HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN QATAR, VIETNAM AND THE UNITED KINGDOM 8
HumanTrafficking In Qatar, Vietnam and the United Kingdom
HumanTrafficking In Qatar, Viet Nam and the United Kingdom
Humantrafficking is a crime in international law and it infringes on therights of the victim. There are many international law instrumentsaimed at addressing this problem, including the United NationsConvention against Transnational Organized crime.
Article4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that, “noone shall be held in slavery or servitude slavery and the slavetrade shall be prohibited in all their forms.” Even though the slavery as a conventional form of labor has beenabolished, there are other contemporary forms of modern slavery oneof them being human trafficking.
Otherinstruments addressing this problem are the International Covenantson Civil and Political Rights, the Convention on the Elimination ofall Forms of Discrimination against Women and the United NationsConvention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons.
Casesof slavery have been reported in Qatar, Vietnam and in the UnitedKingdom. One would wonder how this is still a problem despite thenumerous campaigns aimed at dealing with this challenge. The mainhindrance is the compliance with international law. For allinternational law instruments, states are required to sign, ratifyand enforce these laws in the individual states. The United Nationscommittees are then mandated with the responsibility of monitoringthe implementation of these laws in signatory states which is a majorchallenge. Another challenge is that the victims are reluctant toidentifying the traffickers, as they fear repercussion by thetraffickers.
Despitethe challenges, a lot of effort has been put in by humanitarianorganizations to deal with human trafficking and maintain the dignityof all human beings. This essay shall discuss the case as it is inthe three countries and make recommendations on dealing with thismenace from both an international and domestic perspective.
Humantrafficking in Qatar
Qataris one of the countries that rampant cases of human trafficking havebeen reported. Men and women from Egypt, Sri Lanka, India, China,Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia,Philippines and Sudan voluntarily travel to Qatar to provide labor.However, the conditions that these immigrants work under add up toinvoluntary servitude characterized by constant threats. Theemployers confiscate the travel documents of these immigrants toprevent them from returning to their countries (U.S. State DepartmentTrafficking in Persons Report, 2009).
Dueto the international concern about this problem, the government ofQatar has vowed to curb human trafficking in the country by creatingawareness. The country has enacted law no. (15) Of 2011 on Combatingtrafficking of Human beings. Through this law, the governmentcriminalized human trafficking. However, this did not put a halt tohuman trafficking, but it took the practice underground (Farrel,2011). The situation on the ground is still bad and many voluntaryimmigrants complain about the inhumane treatment that they go throughwhile in this country.
Childrenare still used in camel jockeys and the fact that cameras are notused during these races makes it hard to prosecute the suspects insuch instances. Women, who make up the highest percentage of thevictims are forced to work as cooks and housekeepers mainly becausethey are taken to be vulnerable. The government needs to do much morethan criminalizing human trafficking to be able to deal with thecrime and for the victims to get justice.
Humantrafficking in Viet Nam
VietNam is a source and destination of victims of human trafficking. Justlike in other cases, the highest percentage of victims are women andchildren. For example, in 2007, 670 suspects were accused of beinginvolved in the trafficking of 862 women and children (The AsiaFoundation, 2008). The victims migrate with the hope of making theirlives better by looking for an increased income.
Theimmigrants, who are mainly poor, are recruited by informalrecruitment companies with the promise of better lives. By migrating,the workers risk human trafficking by perpetrators who take advantageof their vulnerability.
Thenorthern border of Viet Nam with China is the main transit route forthe migrants and the trend is worrying as about 80,000 migrationcases are reported every year. Migration is not wrong and haspositive outcomes, but the problem is with the abuse and exploitationthat comes with it. The immigrants are subjected to sex traffickingand forced labor in the foreign countries.
Theunlicensed intermediary brokers charge the workers excess fees forthem to be able to work abroad. The Vietnamese immigrants incur hugedebts that make them vulnerable to forced labor. The workers areposted in places where they earn too little to be able to cater forthe debt. This leaves them with no option but to continue workingunder the harsh conditions.
Beforeleaving Vietnam, the immigrant workers are made to sign contractsthat they do not understand as they are either written in a foreignlanguage, or they are given these contracts a day before thescheduled date for traveling. To make the situation worse, whenever aworker raises a complain about exploitation, the recruitmentcompanies remain unresponsive.
Alot has been done to combat the vice. The Asia Foundation, forexample, began a program to deal with trafficking and prevent furtheroccurrences. The foundation mainly focused on women and children whowere the most vulnerable. The foundation has successfully createdawareness among the citizens on the dangers of getting involved withthe recruitment companies who promise better living conditions, andyet do not deliver. For the victims, the organization provides legalaid and informs them about their rights.
Humantrafficking in the United Kingdom
Accordingto a BBC report, there has been a lot of concern about the humantrafficking cases in the United Kingdom. The U.K. is a majordestination for human trafficking victims and the trend is worrying.These victims are mainly from Nigeria, China, Vietnam and EasternEurope.
Justlike in other cases, the migration is voluntary as the victims arepromised better jobs with a better income. The victims cannot even bespotted at the borders as the process is voluntary and most of themdo not even know that they are victims of human trafficking. Thevictims fall victims to these criminals and end up living underdeplorable conditions with hard labor. The dignity of the victims isalso abused when they are forced to work as sex workers.
Todeal with the vice, police, boarder staff and health workers have nowbeen trained to identify and protect victims of human trafficking,some airlines have also trained their cabin crew to identifypotential victims and help in arresting the perpetrators.
Thegovernment of the United Kingdom has been accused of not doing enoughto deal with the problem. However, according to the authorities, itis not easy to deal with this problem as most of the times, thevictims are not aware that they can get redress. Another challenge isthat even though there are prosecutions of the perpetrators, it isnot enough and often they authorities are forced to charge thesuspects under different crimes and not human trafficking (BBC News,2012).
Theway forward in dealing with the situation
Humantrafficking as stated, is a transnational crime that leads to grossviolation of human rights. Going by its nature, dealing with the vicerequires cooperation of all stakeholders both from the countries thatare sources of victims as well as destination countries. It is notenough to make laws criminalizing the act: more needs to be done forthis vice to come to a halt.
Thereneeds to be sensitization among the citizens of the countries wherethe victims come from. The vulnerable groups need to be encouragednot fall victim to the promises by recruitment agencies about betterjobs. This should be done with the cooperation of the government, thelocal communities and religious organizations (Obi, Ebbe, Dilip &Das, 2008).
Itis also important that the authorities apply the principle ofnon-criminalization of the victims. The reason that less cases ofhuman trafficking are not reported is because the victims fear beingarrested if they air their grievances.
Asdiscussed, the main reason that these cases occur is because theimmigrant workers go out to look for reliable sources of income. Ifall nations and the international community did all they could tofight poverty, the cases of human trafficking will be insignificant.The victims will not be lured into tricky deals with the promise ofbetter conditions. The stakeholders also need to impose strict lawsto combat the crime.
Humantrafficking is a form of modern slavery. It is not enough to identifythe problem and more needs to be done to fight this vice. It is sadthat those countries that advocate for the upholding of human rightsare beneficiaries in the vice of human trafficking. The dignity ofall human beings should be upheld and all countries should defend thelaws that are aimed at combating human trafficking. The UnitedNations committees for implementation of the human trafficking lawsneed to work more with the local communities as they work with theNGOs to help curb this vice.
Justthe same, way slave trade was abolished, even human trafficking as avice can be abolished if the provisions of various laws that help indealing with human trafficking are implemented and the victimsencouraged reporting any cases of exploitation as immigrants.
Combatinghuman trafficking in Vietnam: Lessons learned and practicalexperiences for future program design and implementation. (2008,August 1). Retrieved April 22, 2015, from https://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/FINALVNTraffickingReport0808.pdf
CountryNarrative – Qatar. (2009, June 1). Retrieved April 21, 2015, from http://gvnet.com/humantrafficking/Qatar-2.htm
Ebbe,O., & Das, D. (2008). Globaltrafficking in women and children.BocaRaton, FL: Taylor & Francis.
Farrell,C. (2011). Humantrafficking. Edina,Minn.: ABDO Pub.
Humantrafficking to UK `rising` (2012, October 18). Retrieved April 22,2015, from http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-19984615