Hurricaneis one of the tropical cyclones that cause massive destruction thatis, in most cases, difficult to predict and prevent. occurwhen a region of low pressure within the troposphere is surrounded bya region of extremely high pressure in low altitudes close to thesurface (Symonds, 2003). The center region, also referred to as thewarm core, is warm compared to its surrounding altitudes. The windfield close to the surface of the earth is characterized by rapidlyrotating air. This air rotates around the warm core while movinginwards at a relatively high speed. The inward moving air rotatescyclonically and preserves the angular momentum. The cyclone isclassified as hurricane once the wind speed reaches 119 kilometersper hour or at least 74 miles an hour.

Formationof hurricanes

Studieson the formation of a hurricane is still ongoing, but there are threekey factors (including time, factors, and location) that have beenidentified as the major characteristics of the process of hurricaneformation. peak occurs at different times in differenthemispheres. For example, Atlantic hurricane peaks during the monthof September while the cyclone year in the Southern Hemisphere beginsin July and runs throughout the year (Stanko, 2015).

Currently,researchers have associated the occurrence of hurricanes with sixmajor factors, but the cyclone can still occur without necessarilymeeting all the six conditions. First, water temperature should reach26.5 0 C in order to increase the instability of the overlyingatmosphere (Stanko, 2015). Secondly, a rapid cooling should occur inorder to set free the heat that is required for condensation that isin turn responsible for the power of hurricanes. Third, a high levelof humidity in the lower and middle troposphere since it increasesatmospheric disturbance. Fourth, a low-level wind shear is requiredsince it disrupts the circulation of the storm. Fifth, latitude of345 miles (555 km) facilitates the Coriolis Effect, which deflectsthe wind that is blowing towards the region of low pressure. Forexample, the storm that caused Hurricane Katrina was moving at 280 kmper hour (Waters &amp Fussell, 2010). Sixth, a pre-existing systemcomprising of weather that has already been disturbed is requiredsince hurricanes rarely form in a spontaneous manner.

Mostof hurricanes form in the region referred to as the Inter-tropicalFront that is located close to the equator (Stanko, 2015).Atmospheric instability may also occur in tropical waves,contributing the 85 % of the development of tropical hurricanes. Inmost cases, the cyclone form between 10 degree and 30 degree latitudefrom equator.

Forecastingof hurricanes

Anaccurate forecasting of hurricanes largely depends on thedetermination of strength and position of low-pressure andhigh-pressure regions and how these regions are likely to changeduring the entire life of the tropical system (Pielke, 2009). Theaverage wind that flows through the layer of the troposphere is aneffective tool that scientists use to determine the speed anddirection of the track. However, measuring the speed of the wind cangive an accurate prediction when the hurricane or the storm issheared. A long-term trajectory of a hurricane can be determinedaccurately by smoothing out the short-term wobbles. Prediction ismade possible by simulation software and high-speed computers.Computers and software have allowed scientists to develop models thatcan be used to predict the future occurrence of hurricanes. However,the limited knowledge of how tropical systems develop and the complexnature of these systems make it difficult to forecast the intensityof hurricanes in advance.

Effectsof hurricanes

are considered as some of the most destructive natural disasters thataffect human beings. Storms that cause floods, heavy rains, and largewaves that disrupt human activities, such as international shippingoperations. The strong winds that reach the land destroy buildings,bridges, and vehicles, among other objects (Waters &amp Fussell,2010). The storms are also associated with the death of human beingsand animals. For example, Hurricane Katrina killed about 1,833 peopleand left thousands of people with serious injuries (Waters &ampFussell, 2010). In addition, hurricanes cause environmentalpollution. For example, Hurricane Katrina resulted in oil spills ofapproximately 7 million gallons that polluted the ecosystem as wellas the residential areas (Waters &amp Fussell, 2010). The heavystorms also erode beaches and move masses of debris to residentialareas. In some cases, hurricanes increase the salinity of freshwaterbodies, which endanger the lives of organisms that can only survivein fresh water. Therefore, effects of hurricane mainly includeeconomic, environmental, and social in nature.


Hurricaneis one of the most destructive types of cyclone that is characterizedby a high speed storm. The primary cause of hurricanes is theexistence of two regions with pressure differences. The hurricane isthen formed as air tries to move from the region with high pressureto a region with low pressure. The ultimate effect of air movement isthe occurrence of destructive storms. The major effects of hurricanesinclude the destruction of property (including vehicles andbuildings), public infrastructure (including roads and bridges),deaths, and disruption of the ecosystem.


Pielke,A. (2009). United States hurricane landfalls and damages: Can one-tofive-years predictions beat climatology? EnvironmentalHazards8 (1), 187-200.

Stanko,P. (2015). When is hurricane season? Hurricaneresearch division.Retrieved April 21, 2015, from

Symonds,S. (2003). Highs and lows: Wild weather. ABC.Retrieved April 21, 2015, from

Waters,M. &amp Fussell, E. (2010). The impact of hurricane Katrina on themental and physical health of low-income parents in New Orleans.AmericanJournal of Erthopsychiatry,80 (2), 233-243.