210-O016_ResearchPaper Asian HistoryNameProfessor



Q1. The seminal work of Konrad and Szelenyi of TheIntellectuals on the Road to Class Power, provoked readers to rethinkthe nature of the communist project. Their fundamental thesis was toenhance the power of those who possessed cultural capital. TheCultural Revolution was opened in 1966. During this time, Mao Zedongmobilized the masses to do away with the domination of bourgeoisintellectuals over the education system. Party control was paralyzed,and contending factions mushroomed at every school and worked placeafter Mao launched the Cultural Revolution(Robinson, 1970).Q3. The cultural revolution inChina begun in 1960. It was with an emphasis on expertise rather thanon ideological purity. After the failure of Great Leap Forward in theyear 1958-1960, Mao’s position in the government started to weaken.Mao had to gather a group of radicals including Minister for DefenceLin Biao and his wife Jiang Qing to help him track current partyleadership and reassert his authority. Mao was the strongest aman andvery influential who led the Cultural Revolution. Later on Maosuffered a stroke and he decided to support Deng who now lead therevolution (Robinson, 1970).Q4. It was the Chinese Revolution that overthrew China’s last imperialdynasty and established the Republic of China. It was named Xinhaibecause the revolution occurred in 1911 the year of Xinhai. Stembranch in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar. The keyindividuals that steered the Chinese Revolution are Yuan Shikai, thelate Qing military strongman, and Sun Yat-Sen, who ensured that thebrief civil war was ended through a political comprise. Many groupsalso wanted to overthrow the Qing government to establish a HanChinese government. Yeung Ku-wan’s Furen Literary Society was theearliest revolutionary organization founded outside China. Members ofthe group included Tse Tsan-Tai, who did political satire. SunYat-Sen’s Xingzhonghui, which was established in Honolulu in 1894with the main purpose of raising funds for revolutions, was alsoinvolved in launching Chinese Revolution. The two organizationsemerged in 1894. Smaller groups like the Huaxinghui, Huang Xing,Zhang Shizhao, Chen Tianhua and Song Jiaoren were also involved inChinese Revolution. There are many initial steps that were carriedout when launching the Chinese Revolution. There was the formation ofuprisings. Huizhou, Great Ming, and independence army are among theuprising that was formed (Robinson, 1970).Q5. Thegoals of the Chinese Revolution were to overthrow the feudalmonarchy. The activities that occurred during Chinese Revolution arethat Lin Boqu participated in the 1911 Revolution. Chinese peopleenjoy the personal residential, property, speech, press, assembly,association and freedom of religion. It was also to bring freedom ofworship, expression, movement and freedom of settlement among theChinese people. Q6. The Cultural Revolution affectedthe governing institutions of the country by bringing tension betweenmilitary leaders and organizations. There was political unresteverywhere. It also incorporated a cult of personality whichvenerated Mao. This had a large impact on towns and cities with anintroduction of developments that idolized Mao There was a big changein education policies. The training program was essentially aenlighten program instead of being a balanced curriculum. Manyeducation institutions did not teach the skills required to have apositive input in the workplace. Some institutions were closed downdue to the Cultural Revolution. Some were poorly managed andexperienced difficulties in management.Q7. There werevarious stages and events that marked the decline of the CulturalRevolution in China. Zhou stabilized China through reviving theeducational system and restoring numerous former officials to power.Mao suffered the stroke and in the same year Zhou learned that he hadcancer. The support of the two leaders was thrown to Deng Xiapong.Mao was convinced to purge Deng in April 1976, just a few monthsafter Zhou’s death. After the death of Mao in September, a civil,police and military coalition pushed the Gang of Four OUT. Deng wouldmaintain control over the Chinese government for the next 20 yearsafter he regained power in 1977. If Mao and Zhou would have beenalive, the Cultural Revolution would have continued inChina.Q8. Deng rose to power after the death of Mao andZhou. He regained power in 1977. Deng could also maintain controlover Chinese governments for the next 20 years. This followed afterthe end of Cultural Revolution in China. Mao had suffered a strokeand the same year Zhou learned that he had cancer. Stroke and diseasemade Mao and Zhou week respectively. They minimized their movementsand could not actively participate in a cultural revolution. Theydecided to support Deng Xiaoping, who had been purged during thefirst phase of the Cultural Revolution. Many people were killedduring the Cultural Revolution, and millions of others sufferedimprisonment. There was also the seizure of property, torture orgeneral humiliation. The short term effects of Cultural Revolutionmay have been felt mainly in the cities of China. DEng had a strongsupport from both Zhou and Mao. Q9. During theemergence of the Meiji Restoration including the new principles andoutside influences that shaped this foreign policy was marked by ashift in foreign policy. Prince Mutsuhito, the 14-year-old succeededhis father, Emperor Komei on February 3, 1867. Promulgation of theFive Charter Oath in 1869 was the first reform. The primaryresponsibility for the Japanese foreign policy is exercised by thecabinet and subject to the overall supervision of the nation diet asdetermined by the1947 constitution. The Prime Minister makes periodicreports on foreign relations to the Diet. Upper and lower houses havethe foreign affairs committee. Each committee reports on itsdeliberations to plenary sessions of the chamber it belongs to(Stacey, 1983).Q10. The events that markedcrucial shifts in Japan’s foreign from the 1880s to early 1900s aswell as the form of the empire that it had acquired by the early1900s are an employment of free security officers. There was alsoneed for Japan to protect its territories. The dangers of war anddefeat required that foreign policy take precedence.Meiji leaderslead the shift. They came to the same conclusions using theircultural path. They shared common assumptions with their Prussiancounterparts who also came out of the military and feudal background.The rise of militarism had a strong influence on Japanese societyfrom the Meiji Restoration. During the Meiji period, all leaders inJapanese society were ex-samurai or descendants of samurai and shareda set of values and outlooks. There was the call for a strongmilitary due to the rise in domestic issues within early Meiji Japan(Stacey, 1983).


Robinson, J. (1970). Thecultural revolution in China. Penguinbooks.

Stacey, J. (1983). Patriarchyand socialist revolution in China. Univof California Press.

Zuo, J. (1991). Political religion: The case ofthe cultural revolution in China. Sociologyof Religion, 52(1),99-110.