i) Food demand and global population

  1. Food demand and global population

Foodsecurity is a present global concern, food is rapidly increasing, andthe agricultural expansion is also being impacted by environmentalchanges. Projection for global demand of crop production by 2050 andenvironment impact on this demand for food is an area of concern.Relationship between per capita real income and protein or caloriccontent of crops combined is forecasted to increase by 100% to 110%of global food demand from the year 2005 to 2050[ CITATION Bry10 l 1033 ].Enoughfood is being produced at present, however millions of people gohungry, and the main reason is that the distribution of these foodsis not done effectively. Food production in the world is increasingjust as fast as the population is, food prices in markets is in ahistoric low, prices for food have made a steady decline throughouthistory. Over the last three decades, production of major cereals hasdouble. In places around the world where food security is a majorconcern for instance Africa, the amount of food production made a 33%increase in the 80’, the major problem is the growth of thepopulation is more rapid than growth of food production[ CITATION Mic13 l 1033 ].

Globalpopulation is fast growing and the per capita incomes are expected toincrease. There is evidently an increasing demand for food, this isexpected to be catered for, as a lot of land is being cleared andthere is intensive use of croplands that are currently in existence,this is expected to supply the huge demand for food that isanticipated in the future[ CITATION Mic13 l 1033 ].Howeverthis land situation poses an even greater problem, the biodiversityis destroyed, habitats are under distraction, land clearing andfertilization is a big concern due to the green house gases emissionsthat occur in the process.

Understandinghow the crop production impacts on the environment helps usunderstand what kinds of agricultural practices will ensure largeproduction of food at a lower risk of environmental distraction.

Calculationfor net nation demands from crop protein and crop calories, for everynation on a yearly basis, basing these calculations on the nationalyearly yields, imports, exports and production needs to be taken intoaccount. These has to take into consideration up to 275 differentmajor crops used as livestock food, human foods as well as fishfeeds[ CITATION Les12 l 1033 ].Theresulting per capita demands for protein and calories from the entirefeed and food crop combined. This does not only involve the foods andfeeds but also the spoilages and waste that may be formed during foodproduction, manufacturing, transport and storage.

  1. Future food demands

Thereis need to control the economic differences that exist amongstnations, and this can be done by determining the global trends in thelong term, for this to be realized, all nations have to becategorized into seven groups and organized from the highestdownwards according to their economic state. Observing therelationship between per capita GDP and per capita crop use, futurecrop demand will be forecasted.

Combiningthe improved current agricultural technologies, land clearing, andenhanced soil fertility the 2050 caloric demand projected for theentire globe will be met results are the same for protein as well[ CITATION Bry10 l 1033 ].Soil fertility can be enhanced so as to increase the yieldsthroughout the future cover crops, legumes and N fertilization. Thisstrategy is used to determine just how much crops may be produced ifall these strategies are made a reality. The caloric differences on ayearly basis from nation to nation will be determined by use ofmultiple regression, the N fertilization intensities and all thevariable that are thought to have impacts on yields are used. It hasbeen found that caloric yields relate to the following and getimpacted by them as well: precipitation, intensity, N fertilization,and economic group, time in years, soil PH, potentialevapotranspiration and elevation. Simpler regression includes justthe precipitation, economic group, time and N fertilizationintensity[ CITATION Mic13 l 1033 ].

  1. Full planet, empty plate

Accordingto Lester Brown, food scarcity is influenced by eroding soils, risingtemperatures and falling water table. Food security can be containedif water resources and arable land are controlled to ensure rightamounts of crops are planted and consequently. It is evident that theworld we live in now has abundance where food is concerned howeverthis is fast changing as we are going in the direction of foodscarcity. Grain production has reduced and it hit a low between 2007and 2008, rendering millions of people to hunger, the price for thegrain foods doubled in the same period[ CITATION Les12 l 1033 ].

Tighteningfoods supplies at present contrasts very sharply with the food issuein the better part of twentieth century, where the main issue inagriculture was overproduction, a lot of grain surpluses and lack ofaccessible market for the grain exporters. Excess productiontherefore regulated the market prices were low and the grainsaccessible. This period of abundance was when the total number ofpeople in the world was 2.5 billion, at present the total populationis seven billion[ CITATION Les12 l 1033 ].There is no increase in food production to match the increase inamount of people needing food, there is a need for agriculturalpractices to change so as to have higher yields that will serve therising number of people: to adequately meet the demand.

Anotherconcern on matters of food security is that a lot of people seem toconsume a lot of animal products in levels that are unhealthytherefore they end up with health issues such as cardiovasculardisease and obesity. The strategy that can be used is to try anddiscourage people from eating the kinds of foods that pose healthrisks and this has an advantage as people will start eating theavailable grains. This also helps biodiversity as demands on red meatlessens therefore reduce the pressure that is placed on earth.Another strategy is lowering the prices of foods, and increasing thecarbon taxes. This is because carbon gas emissions from manufacturingplants and cars are a source of serious pollution and degradation.This way the cost of environmental degradation is put upon themarket. Water efficient crops such as rice and wheat can be plantedso as to alleviate water shortage problems that are another globalcrisis concern.

References

Brown, L. (2012). Full planet, Empty plate: the new geopolitics of food scarcity. Washington post: W. W. Norton and company.

Carolan, M. S. (2013). Reclaiming food security . London: Routledge .

McDonald, B. (2010). Food security . Cambridge: Polity.