Impact of the Media on Consumer Behaviour in the Beauty Industry in U.K Abstract

IMPACT OF THE MEDIA ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR 1

Impact of the Media on Consumer Behaviour in the Beauty Industry inU.K

Abstract

In the UK, the media has contributed significantly in consumers’behaviour in the beauty sector. In this regards, the exploration hasattained judgment founded and consequence focused assessments on theimpact of the media on consumers’ behaviour. Since the media hasdeveloped as a diverse and complex sector, the paper considered thevarious engagements between the media and consumers. As such, theexploration addresses the question, The impact of media onconsumer behaviour in the beauty sector in UK with a case study onTaylor Taylor Salon. The exploration examined obtainableliteratures together with a case study on Taylor Taylor Salon. Theexploration used a case study planned based on a multiple-stylestudy, but with inordinate awareness into qualitative data through asequences of interviews, questionnaires and evaluations, which mostscholars have documented as the greatest system for a contemporarybusiness study (Ritchie et al. 2013). In this regards, theexploration demonstrated the impact of the media on consumerbehaviour in the beauty industry.

Contents

Abstract 2

1.0 INTRODUCTION 6

1.1 Introduction 6

1.2 Background of the research problem 6

1.3 Statement of the problem 8

1.4 Objectives of the study 8

1.5 Significance of the study 9

1.6 Definition of major terms 11

1.6.1 Consumer behaviour 11

1.6.2 Advertisement 11

1.6.3 Perception 11

1.6.4 Brand 11

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 12

2.1 Introduction: Overview of the Salon 12

2.2 How consumers make decisions 12

2.3 Exposure 13

2.4 Information acquisition and assessment 16

2.5 Media selection 17

3.0 METHODOLOGY 18

3.1 Methodology 18

3.2 Research design 20

3.3 Sampling and population 20

3.5 Instruments and Measurement 21

3.6 Means of data collection 22

3.7 Inclusion and exclusion criteria 23

3.8 Reliability and validity 23

4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 25

4.1 Introduction 25

4.2 Data analysis 25

4.3 Overview of the findings 26

4.4 Expressive Analysis 27

4.5 Regression and ANOVA analyses 28

4.6 Multiple linear regressions 31

4.7 Multiple regression model summaries 32

4.7.1 ANOVA 33

4.7.2 Cronbach 34

5.0 DISCUSSION 35

5.1 Introduction 35

5.2 Hypotheses discussion 35

6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 39

6.1 Conclusion 39

6.2: Recommendations 40

Bibliography 41

Appendices 48

Questionnaire: 48

Table 1: Likert Scale 50

Table 2: Regression analysis 50

Table 3: ANOVA analysis 51

1.0INTRODUCTION1.1Introduction

The media is one of the main influencers of consumer behaviour.According to Solomon et al. (2012), the evolution of media, such asthe technological progress in print media, television and radio, andmost recently, social media, has changed the way that companiesadvertise their products and how the consumers perceive them. Overthe last decade, marketers have concentrated their marketing andcommunications strategies on these media platforms, with the aim ofincreasing consumer information and brand marketing. As such,companies have made major investments in their marketing strategy topass the message through the media to reach as many prospectivecustomers as possible. Based on views from leading advertisers acrossthe globe, companies generate many digital data when they go aboutinteracting with their target markets. From analyzing the amount ofdata for advertisements in media platforms, it is observed that thecompanies are diversifying their marketing options through variousmedia platforms to reach as many customers as possible. Thedissertation provides a discourse that looks at the impact of themedia on consumer behaviour in the beauty industry in UK based on acase study in Taylor Taylor Salon.

1.2Background of the research problem

Before the invention of modern forms of communication, namely radio,television and the internet, companies advertised their products totheir customers through print media (Marcus and Wyke 2013). Theadvertisements were designed and printed in daily papers and featuremagazines, and the consumer has to know almost all the informationabout the products from the same.

In the wake of the 19th century, the discovery of radiorevolutionized the mode of advertising. At this time, the leadingcompanies marketed their products through the radio stations thatwere existent at the time, which were mainly owned by the government.As the century progressed, television became a household equipment,and the advertisers saw a channel for getting their goods to thepeople through the same. It was not until the late 1990s thatcompanies to market their products first used internet advertising(Ignatov 2012). The development of social media platforms such asFacebook and Twitter enhanced the art of advertising, with almostevery product in the market getting its share on these platforms.

Over the past few years, marketers and promoters have had toevaluate the effectiveness of the media in advertisement and customerresponse. While some people feel that the media has done a lot ininfluencing the consumer behaviour, some insist that the quality ofthe product and power of the brand are the main determiners ofconsumer behaviour (Hampel 2012). The proponents of media advertisingargue that modern marketing involves exploiting media and emergingmedia technologies to create a message that will convince theconsumers to go for certain products. However, the critics hold thatover-advertising on the media platforms is a sign of weakness, which,in fact, may work in reverse, and drive the customers away. Instead,they hold that concentrating on product quality and selling throughrenowned brands convinces the consumers more than a mereadvertisement. As such, marketers and promoters have had to findsolutions to selling their products to the potential customers,especially in new unexploited markets.

Regardless of the different opinions presented by marketers, theyall unanimously agree that the advertisement is an imperative in thecontemporary business world. This strategy helps companies to beprofitable and to make the maximum possible number of customers inthe market. According to Bansal and Gupta (2014), the fastest movingconsumer goods are the ones that have been adequately advertised. Inbusiness, the advertisement is a practical affair, which isintrinsically different from marketing. While advertising drives thecustomers to the products, the role of marketing is driving theproducts to the customers. Therefore, advertisement is promoting theproducts and services to the people and its aim is getting the peopleto focus on them, and select them, with the belief that they are thebest for their suited purposes (Knapp and Vanderhook 2014). Given therising role of media in the everyday business world, many advertisershave turned to it to get the consumers to select their products andservices. However, before the advertisers make any decisions, theyneed to evaluate the projected success of the advertisements anddetermine whether it is efficient or not.

1.3Statement of the problem

The social phenomenon that is investigated in this research isconsumer’s purchasing behaviour as influenced by advertisement ofbeauty products in the United Kingdom. The main problem, which thisstudy aims to address, is the United Kingdom’s consumer attitudestowards the advertisement of beauty products in the media. Thisincludes print, radio, television and online (social media)advertisement. More specifically, the research paper investigates theimpact of media marketing as a research tool during the customer’sdecision making while purchasing beauty products in the UnitedKingdom.

1.4Objectives of the study

The objectives of the study are-

  1. To find out if the media is having a positive impact on the consumer behaviour to purchase beauty treatments.

  2. To find out if media is playing a significant role in the growth of the beauty industry in the UK

  3. To find out if the media is having a negative impact on beauty product consumers in the UK.

  4. To find the reasons why consumers pay so much for the perceived quality of products in the UK

  5. To find out if the media has a significant influence on many consumer perceptions of their physical appearance in the UK.

The following are the hypotheses for the paper

  1. There is a positive correlation between the media and consumer behaviour in the UK beauty products market.

  2. The media plays a significant role in the growth of the UK beauty industry.

  3. The media does not have a negative impact on UK beauty products consumers

  4. There is a positive correlation between media advertisement for perceived quality and the prices paid for them by the UK consumers.

  5. The media positively influences the perception of beauty products amongst the consumers in the UK.

1.5Significance of the study

Duckingham (2013) says that the media is changing the way in whichinformation is communicated to the people across the world. Theincreased use of various media platforms, such as radio, television,print and social media is changing the way in which companies areresponding to their customer’s needs and wants. At the same time,it is changing the competition dynamics, as companies, which investheavily in media advertisement hope to attain a competitive edge overtheir rivals. As such, with the developments in media technology,marketers have had an opportunity to engage the public in moreinnovative media communications. Marketing in the media has turnedout to be an opportunity that every company is investing in, with theaim of reaching out to more customers than their rivals reach (Vermaand Singh 2014). The growth of media technology has also enabled theconsumers to interact with each other and to share their perceptionsof brands and their values. Therefore, marketing in the media is acommunication opportunity that presents the marketers with anopportunity to reach out to more customers, and which has helped themto build and maintain a relationship with their target clients.

Additionally, with the growth in media advertisement over the years,situational awareness on the global market environment has beenincreased significantly. Thus, modern media platforms have played abig role in the marketing strategy (Chang et al. 2014). The existingliterature has informational gaps regarding the role of mediaadvertising for beauty products in the United Kingdom. Additionally,many consumers are not aware of the role that media advertising hason their consumer’s behaviours. As such, they may not be aware ofany misperceptions or trends they may be missing. The significance ofthis research is that consumer perception has been influenced bymarketing communications, and it is necessary for the stakeholders tohave the right information as they engage in the business.

1.6Definition of major terms1.6.1Consumer behaviour

Consumer behaviour is an indicator of the behaviours and methods usedby customers while shopping for products. Customer behaviour is alsoa reflection of the consumer’s attitudes towards a certain product,which is available on the market. Additionally, consumer behaviourdescribes the after-purchase attitude of the customer and what theymake of the product as regards to their satisfaction.

1.6.2Advertisement

This is the anatomy of the device, which is designed to attract theattention of the consumers towards a certain product. Advertisementsare made to appeal to the consumers and convince them to purchase agiven product. It often plays on the consumer’s taste, needs andwants.

1.6.3Perception

This is a crucial marketing concept that incorporates the consumer’sawareness and impression about a company and its products. Customerperception is mainly influenced by marketing efforts such asadvertisement and public opinion.

1.6.4Brand

This is a demonstration of how a company positions itself in theniche market and how the target customers perceive the brand. Brandsgive marketers and opportunity to attract customers to their existingand upcoming products. Additionally, the brand is the company and itsproduct’s representative in the customers’ imaginative andjudgmental minds. Therefore, all meanings in the consumer market areinfluenced by the brand power.

2.0LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1Introduction: Overview of the Salon

In the marketing business, consumers are the actors on themarketplace stage (Johar et al. 2012). The consumers buy the productsand services from the sellers, who, in this case, are themanufacturers of the products. In order to have the consumers buytheir products, companies are supposed to devise ways of informingthem about their products and give them reasons why they shouldchoose them over those manufactured by their rivals. The easiestmeans of convincing the consumers to get these products is byinfluencing their decisions through the media. However, influencingconsumer behaviour is a process, which is categorically executed.This literature review looks at previous works done on consumer’sperception, media strategies and purchasing trends. Taylor TaylorSalon has been voted the most prestigious hair stylist and beautysalon in the UK consistently. Voted the best beauty salon in 2011, itremains a darling of many consumers in the UK thus, a case studyfocused on the salon helps to demonstrate the impact of the media onconsumer behaviour greatly.

2.2How consumers make decisions

According to Grainer (2013) and Pickton and Broderick (2005), theconsumers in the market make everyday decisions regarding the kind ofproducts they need. Most of these decisions are made based on whatthey see in advertisements, news and other media related channels. Ifthese customers are not active shoppers, it is more likely that theywill depend on the media to get information about the products theywill use. Schryer et al. (20014) asserts that the information theyget from the media sources is the trigger of the “impulse to buy”.Over time, the accumulated impressions become crucial as they modelthe former set of considerations regarding the products they will buyfor certain uses. Yeung (2013) says that the funnel analogy positsthat customers will categorically narrow initial considerations asthey weigh out options to get more information about the productsthey need.

While making decisions, customers and consumers go through what istermed a certain phase, which is the period of intensivedecision-making and building loyalty to certain brands of products(Vohs et al. 2014). Modern marketers have thus been compelled totarget and hit the consumers with the information that will mostlikely influence them to purchase their products. As such, the mediais filled with advertisements, which aim to attract the attention ofthe customers to the product. In order to cover the largest customerbase, the advertisers use almost all media platforms. Hudson and Thal(2013) summarize the consumer decision journey and divides it intofour major parts.

The first stage involves the consumer making considering an initialset of brands (Atsmon et al. 2012). This is based on the brandperceptions and exposure to recent factors. In this stage, theadvertisers in the media maximize on selling the image of the productand its value to the potential customers. The second stage is thesubstitution of brands through evaluation of needs. This is where theadvertisers use the media to explain the advantages of their productsover the competitors. At this stage, the consumers have made reacheda point where personal choice overruns the advertisements in themedia (Lysonski and Durvasula 2013). The third stage involves theselection of the brand, and the final stage involves expectationbuilding and experience gathering for the next phase of the purchase.

2.3Exposure

According to Hudson and Hudson (2013), the exposure to products andservices through the media is a significant factor in marketing andselling. When the consumers are exposed to information through themedia, it is considered a passive process. This is in respect toinformation process. However, Kim et al. (2012) defaults the speed atwhich information is passed to the customers. Given the developedmedia technology, most of this information is passed at fast rates,and the same may have adverse effects on the expected outcome.Hawkins et al. (2015) say that instead of getting the message acrossto the customers and consumers, in general, the target market’sattention to the information is decreased as they struggle to processall the information they receive, and their cognitive elaboration isdistorted.

According to Rasool et al. (2012), overload of information in themedia platforms makes it hard for the businesses to convince thepotential buyers by confusing them. This happens because thepotential buyers fail to encode the message into their memories andsoon forget what was said about particular products in various mediaplatforms. Additionally, Kamal and Chu (2012) say that the consumersmake most buying decisions hastily. This is because, under thepressures of time and other shopping dynamics, the buyers are lesslikely to change their minds about the products they wish topurchase. According to Gal-Or et al. (2012), this stage ischaracterized by the flow of incoming information from the nearestmedia platform.

Kamal and Chu (2012) and Evans (2012) give a good example toelaborate this phenomenon. For instance, a shopper wishing topurchase a certain product whose specifications they know little ofwould reach out for their phones and browse the internet to get thedetails. This would help them to make decisions about the productsthey wish to purchase. According to van den Heuvel et al. (2012), thefact that humans have a limited capacity means that processinginformation is a crucial notion, as it affects different componentsin the decision-making process. As such, companies that have devisedthe easiest ways of advertising their products on the available mediaplatforms would be advantaged, and the potential buyers would mostlikely buy from them.

2.4Information acquisition and assessment

According to Shrum (2012), the selection of various media platformsby the consumers is a major determinant of the kind of informationthey will be exposed to. This means that in various situations, theconsumers make references regarding the kind of information theywould like to get about a certain product, and the kind ofinformation that the companies will put on these platforms regardingthose products. Joo et al. (2013) support this, saying that it is thereason different shoppers have different tastes for media platforms,such as print, radio, television and online media. Additionally,Voorveld (2011) and Keh (2007) say that there is certain information,which is highly selective during the stage of informationacquisition. For instance, when the consumers are seeking informationfrom external sources, such as from friends and the media, theinformation will most likely influence their decision-making, and atthe same time, may influence them to change their goals and desires,hence leading to perpetual encoding.

Jin and Lutz (2013) support this notion, saying that there arecertain stages where the businesses that advertise their productsonline have to stop the customers from getting certain informationabout the products, such as the perceived costs of the products. Theadvertisers on the media have the power of influencing informationacquisition and evaluation by the customers by altering some detailsto make the product seem more valuable and less costly. In theprocess, the potential buyers are unconsciously guided through theselection process. In such a case, Brown et al. (2014) say that mediaadvertisements are considered interruptions leading to goalre-organization. Khorsidi et al. (2013) say that in most cases, ifthe potential buyers are aware of the information that is beingcensored by the advertisers, they may definitely change their mindsand go for another brand.

2.5Media selection

In order to reach out to choose the media to pass the message to thepotential buyers in the most convincing and effective way, Katz (2014and Smith and Zook (2011) say that there are some considerations thatadvertisers take. This is because given the variety of mediaplatforms available, the most successful advertisers will have toweigh out their options to reach and influence the customers’decisions most effectively. Horsky et al. (2014) and Berthon et al.(2012) explain that almost all modern media platforms allow the usersto create a connection with the companies’ products and to makedecisions based on what they are told. The first consideration thatthe advertisers take is the tone of marketing on a particularplatform. Most buyers value honesty and authenticity, and in order toprove that they are committed to the same, the advertisers would useplatforms that the potential buyers would believe in (Kapitan andSilveram 2015). To ensure that the message is credible and reliable,the advertisers would, therefore, go for digital advertisement, whichis available through online advertisement. Additionally, to showcommitment to value through marketing, the advertisers would go formedia platforms that allow for conversation between the company andthe buyers. Examples of media platforms that allow this to happen areradio and online advertisement (Katz 2014). These platforms have ahigh probability of changing the buyer’s perception about theproduct. Finally, Li et al. (2015) identify control as one of thedeterminers of the form of media that the advertisers would use toconvince the potential buyers to buy certain products. In this case,print media provides the biggest advantage for the advertisers radiohas medium level control while online marketing (social media) hasthe least control. These are some of the main considerations formedia advertisers while influencing consumer behaviour.

3.0METHODOLOGY3.1Methodology

In this exploration, both qualitative and quantitative methodologieswere utilized. Quantitative research includes surveys andquestionnaire, which are used by the researcher for purposes ofgathering information from the participants. It involves askingpeople their opinions about a certain phenomenon in a structuredmanner so that that researcher can produce facts and statistics thatwill guide them in the research they are conducting. In nature,quantitative research is quite descriptive, and it is mainly used tounderstand the effects of various factors on the independentvariables, who, in this case, are the consumers. By usingquantitative research in this discourse, the researcher was in aposition to accurately and correctly predict consumer behaviour asinfluenced by the companies and adverts. According to Bernard (2011)and Alvesson and Skoldberg (2009) this kind of research is also knownas positivism. Researchers who are mainly concerned with foretellingconsumer behaviours in the market are called positivists.

Qualitative research, as pertains to the purpose of this research, isqualitative in nature. This is because it is mainly based oncollecting data from small samples. According to qualitativeresearchers, each consumption situation is viewed to be unique andnon-predictable. The emphasis of this kind of an exploration isunderstanding the customer’s experience, and as such, it is termedas interpretivism. The researchers who adopt this kind of researchare known as interpretivism. This is because they are mainlyconcerned with finding out certain patterns of operative values,denotations and conduct of the consumers. According to Bernard(2011), researchers often combine to both find out the trends in thefield and predict consumer behaviours. The diagram below demonstrateshow research in this field can be conducted by using qualitative andquantitative methods.

Figure 1: Research using qualitative and quantitative methods.

3.2Research design

In marketing and consumer behaviour research, the systematic reviewapproach is a key element of evidence-based field research. A reviewis branded with the adjective “systematic” if it is based onclearly formulated questions, which identify relevant elements of thestudy, evaluates the quality of the questions and recaps the evidenceby means of explicit methodology. What distinguishes the systematicreviews from traditional reviews and commentaries are the elements ofit being intuitively explicit and systematic. While designing anexplicit review, the research questions were initially stated as aquery in the free form. However, some reviews opt to present thequestions in a structured and explicit design. Various components ofthe questions are related to a definite structure, which areoutcome-based.

According to Khan and Coomarasamy (2006) and Oliver et al. (2015),there are five steps in designing a systematic review. The first stepis framing the questions for a review, and the problems, which are tobe addressed in the review, have to be specified in a clear andunambiguous manner. Secondly, the researcher is tasked withidentifies the relevant work. All the study selection criteria haveto be obtained freely from the questions and reasons for inclusionand exclusion is recorded accordingly. Thirdly, the researcherassesses the quality of the studies, which have to be relevant to allthe steps in the review. The evidence gathered is then summarized,and finally, the finding are interpreted as the issues highlighted inthe research be evaluated.

3.3Sampling and population

According to Ritchie et al. (2013), the sample size is a function ofconvenience, time and cost. For the evaluation by the researcher, theresearch’s sample size was 6 participants. This was deliberatedupon for reasons of accuracy and precision. Scholars have contendedthat a researcher has to develop a sample size that can integrate theresearch questions and challenge without bias. The research took intoconsideration the geographical limit of the research process, and assuch, used one researcher to conduct the interviews and collect theinformation from the questionnaires.

3.4 Ethical issues

According to Bradley (2013), researchers in consumer behaviour arepleased to conduct research that will benefit the society and theconsumers. As such, the research was conducted in a neutral andeducative way, so not to hide any necessary information that theparticipants had a right of knowing. Additionally, the research hadto gather information, which was relevant to the topic of research.For instance, the participants were asked why they decided topurchase the products due to the influence of the media, and notpersonal or private reasons such as illness. Additionally, Babbie(2015) says physical proximity in marketing and consumer behaviourresearch is necessary. Therefore, the researcher was aware thatphysical proximity between them and the respondent would change therelationship between the two during the time of interview. Therefore,instead of encoding a survey from an anonymous person, the researcherhad to come face to face with the respondents in the salon settingsto boost respondent confidence and reliability of information.

3.5Instruments and Measurement

Three exploration mechanisms were utilized in this research. Thefirst one was questionnaires. The questionnaires were setsystematically and used by the researcher to get information from therespondents. For the purposes of the study, the questionnaires wereprinted and presented in an interview format during the datacollection procedure. The questionnaires for the research werefactual, to lessen any complications. The second research instrumentthat was used was interviews. The researchers talked to and listenedto the salon goers, and open questions were used to collect thenecessary information. The researcher kept in mind that theinterviewee’s views about the topic were not significant, and assuch, they were in control of the session. Finally, books andscholarly materials were used to collect secondary information. Thesewere particularly useful to collect empirical data and views fromother researchers on the same topic.

3.6Means of data collection

Data collection was conducted via semi-structure interviews. Thismethod was chosen because semi-structure interviews provide a clearsset of instructions for the interviews that can provide reliable andcomparable qualitative data. Although semi-structured interviews arein most cases followed by observations, there is the incorporation ofinformal and unstructured interviewing to give the researcher anopportunity to develop an intense understanding of the topic ofinterest. This is necessary for the development of relevant andmeaningful semi-structured questions. Regardless, the inclusion ofopen-ended questions may give the researcher an opportunity to lookat the topic and understanding it in a new light.

Regardless, the level to which an interview is effective is afunction of the communication skills that the interviewer possesses,and their ability to clarify the questions as they are structured.These are techniques of ensuring that the interviewee is aware of theaim of the research and is confident while giving feedback. Accordingto Bryman (2012), the main difference between the structured and theunstructured interviews is that the latter is closer to observation,and the former mainly uses closed questions.

This research’s interview was conducted in the selected TaylorTaylor salon in London, UK. The chosen salon is a high standardprofessional establishment. Six participants were randomlyinterviewed. None of the participants were compelled to take part inthe interview process, and they were asked to give the informationonly through will. The interview was a face to face interview andopen and closed ended questions were used. All the participants werebetween 25 and 60 years, preferably women. The interview questionswere designed in advance, and the focus interview was conducted toobtain rich information to help the researcher get a clearunderstanding of consumer behaviour. This was helpful to help answerthe research questions and to assess the hypothesis. The participantswere requested to enter their personal information and to sign aconsent form for debriefing purposes. These processes were aimed atobtaining both qualitative and quantitative primary data, which wasused to discuss the topic and draw conclusions through comparison,evaluation and analysis.

3.7Inclusion and exclusion criteria

All the participants had to be members of the public and currentlyreceiving beauty treatment for buying beauty products. They had to bebetween the age of 25 and 60.

3.8Reliability and validity

Reliability is the measure of consistency, in other words, a measureof the selected research instrument’s consistency. In order toquantify the dependability of the selected tools, test-retestreliability was conducted, to measure the consistency of the measureover time. Secondly, the researcher conducted internal consistencyreliability to measure the accuracy and consistency of the research’sselected research tools. Zikmund and Babin (2012) say that validityis the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed tomeasure, and does the job as it has been designed to do it. It israre to have 100% validity, and as such, the same is measured indegrees. This research conducted a content validity to assess whetherthe questionnaires accurately assessed what the researcher wanted toknow. In order to do this, representative questions were selected andevaluated against the desired outcome.

4.0DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 4.1Introduction

The previous chapter addressed issues of research design and pointedout that the multiple-style approach would be most appropriate forthe collection of the data. As for the qualitative research, theresearcher used face-to-face interviews, and for quantitativeresearch, questionnaires were used. This chapter looks to exemplifythe outcomes of the data collection exercise. At the same time,findings are classified as they are presented. The discourse definesthe implication of the research items by using simple regression.

4.2Data analysis

Data was gathered from qualitative exploration by suingquestionnaires for the survey purpose. The data that was collectedwas used to assess the significant outcomes that were revealed fromthe main research. Proceedings that were assembled from theone-on-one interviews were coded from the qualitative technique. Thequestionnaires that are used in this review involve a single set of 6questions and a 5 scale Likert measure of 1 to 5, with 1 indicating“strongly agree” and 5 indicating “strongly disagree”. Theresearch was conducted in Taylor Taylor Salon, a high-end salon inthe Central Business District of London.

All the participants, upon confirming that they were within theresearch age bracket, filled the questionnaires and returned them.The questionnaires queried the main features regarding the consumerpreferences and the media advertisement of various beauty products.One Likert measure had five accounts, and as such, the participantswere requested to fill in just one of them. In areas where theresearcher considered necessary, some extra questions were posed tohelp the interviewee get direction and to help the interviewercollect more accurate data. SPSS was used to explore the data andproduce graphical representations.

4.3Overview of the findings

The research study looked to carry out a discussion in the form ofsurvey and evaluations to assess the feelings of beauty productcustomers and consumers in the UK. The study considered thestrategies that are being used by the advertisers and compared themto those that were identified in the literature review. However, thefocus was put on the media’s strategies and how they put theproducts across in efforts to convince the customers and consumers togo for them.

Marketing strategies that were used by the marketers were assessedfor the purposes of evaluation their general effect in the market.There were three main variables were considered to evaluate thesignificance of media advertising. The first variable was theintensity of advertising of a particular product, medium of mediaused for advertisement and customer response. According to the mediaadvertisers, there should be careful assessment of these variables toensure that the intended marketing message is not distorted and thatthe reception of the products in the media is reflective of what themarketers want. As such, there was an evaluation of the effectivenessof the marketing strategies that were most predominant for beautyproducts in the UK.

Another important measure was the customers’ response to mediamarketing, and the general effect that the message on theadvertisements had as regards to marketing. In this respect, therewas a measurement of some particular findings by applying a thoroughevaluation of objects using linear regression to advance on theresearch’s accuracy capacity. Moreover, the items that wereacknowledged in the research were measured through the Likert measureof scale 1 to 5.

Table 1 below lists a number of items in regards to each measure ofthe Likert scale. According to Sijtsma (2009) and Tavakol and Dennick(2011) consistency and Cronbach alpha are used to display a scale ofdependability, as investigated in the study. From the findings, therewas a significant show of a magnitude of consistency at alpha &gt0.69.According to the Likert scale, the consumer perceptions that werebuilt by the media advertisement of the products were significantlycorrelated. Moreover, the collected data showed that the intent ofthe media to influence the UK beauty product marker was effective inshaping the market dynamics.

Variable

Coefficient Alpha

Intensity of advertisement

0.749

Media selection

0.551

Customer response

0.7

4.4Expressive Analysis

In efforts to classify the roles that various advertisement platformsplayed in shaping the decision of the UK beauty product customers,the research conducted a descriptive analysis to evaluate the extentof the same. In the research, some of the factors that have beensuggested and applied in the Eigen value standard, which provided thestandard for mining the features (values &gt1). The three mainfactors were also used to explain the overall 60% variance, as perthe finding of Csardi and Nepusz (2006) in such research. The VarimaxRotation, Empirical Orthogonal and the principal axis were used inthe abstraction technique as applied in the research. According toHannachi et al. (2007) and Costello, (2009), most researchers incontemporary practice accept this method as the most reliable forfactor exploratory designs. Moreover, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkintechnique was applied to the survey, revealing a variabletolerability of 0.82.

4.5Regression and ANOVA analyses

This research was designed to collect information about theparticipants (customers’) opinion on the strategies that have beenapplied by advertisers through the media to influence their productdecision-making. Some of the major strategies that advertisers haveused to influence the customer decisions are appealing to theirpersonal interests, using icons (models), pricing strategies andproduct physical perception. According to verbal feedback from therespondents, the advertisers had used these strategies to influencetheir decisions. In addition, the availability of a number of mediaplatforms has boosted marketing campaigns for many products in thebeauty industry of the UK. 78% of the respondents agreed that theadvertisers had used marketing strategies to influence the customerdecisions, with 80% agreeing that these strategies had beeneffectively executed. On the other hand, 25% of the respondents(customers) gave an indication that the marketers had mixed otherstrategies that were not effective as they had been intended to be.Some of these, such as aggressiveness in product marketing, have beenidentified in the literature review.

The outcomes of the research positively indicated that therespondents were well aware of the media’s intention to influencetheir decision-making, which they said that had worked in most cases,and recognized that the manufacturers were working with the media tocreate a communication channel between them. The table below showsthe regression and ANOVA analyses as pertains to the study’shypothesis.

Hypothesis

Result

Supported?

H1: There is a positive correspondence between the media and consumer behaviour in the UK beauty product market

P= 0.00455

Yes

H2: The media plays a significant role in the growth of the UK beauty industry

P=0.001

Yes

H3: There is a positive correlation between media advertisement for perceived quality and the prices paid for them by the UK Consumers

P=0.012

Yes

H4: The media positively influences the perception of beauty products amongst the consumers in the UK

P=0.01

Yes

H1: There is a positive (constructive) correspondence between themedia and consumer behaviour in the UK beauty product market

According to the exploration outcomes, there is a 78% strength in therelationship between the media and consumer behaviour in the UKbeauty product marker. Additionally, it is suggested by the findingsthat the effectiveness of the media marketers and the consumerbehaviour compare. The research on the efforts exerted by the mediamarketers of the beauty products suggests that customer persuasion isan imperative tool in the marketing exercise, which convinced thecustomers to go for the products, and as such, there was a positivecorrelation. The research demonstrates that the use of mediamarketing strategies also help the beauticians to sell the productsto the eventual consumers.

H2: The media plays a significant role in the growth of the UKbeauty industry.

According to the research findings, 80% of the participants agreedthat the media played a significant role in the growth of the UKbeauty industry. The findings compare to the findings from theliterature review, which reveal that the media is one of the greatestinfluencers of market dynamics. The role of the media marketers isconvincing the consumers through the vendors that the products theywish to purchase are effective. According to the research, there isvarying impact as regards to the exact media platform that is used tomarket a certain product. For instance, using social media iseffective in spreading the word about the product quickly, as itseffects have been measured to be instantaneous.

H3: There is a positive correspondence between media advertisementfor perceived quality and the prices paid for them by the UKconsumers.

A convincing rating of 74% indicated that the perceived quality ofthe product is positively related to the prices that are paid by thecustomers and consumers. According to the research, the mediamarketers help move the product by making it appear as worthy of theprice that the manufacturers set for it. This helps the customers andconsumers to pay without questioning the perceived quality created bythe media.

H4: The media positively influences the perception of beautyproducts amongst the consumers in the UK.

The findings of the study suggest a 78% strength that the media has apositive influence amongst consumers on the perception of beautyproducts in the UK. This suggestion conforms to the indications fromthe literature review. A good number of the respondents agreed thatmost of the beauty product manufacturers owed their success to thework of media in advertising their products. All the platforms,television, radio, print and online media worked to influencepositively the product perception amongst the customers andconsumers.

4.6Multiple linear regressions

All the values obtainable in this segment are common amongst all thevariables researched. The model consist of two elements, forecastingvalues, which are constants, and dependent variables wand are theaverage summation of the media influence on beauty products in theUK.

4.7Multiple regression model summaries

The table below shows that the R square’s value gained 0.700, whichis equivalent to 70%. The implications of the same are that the threevariables satisfactorily describe the consumer behaviour. Themultiple regression summary measures against elements of the ANOVAanalysis. From the same, it is suggested that 70% of the interviewedrespondents had knowledge regarding the media’s role in beautyproduct marketing and sales. The adjusted R-square has a value of43.3%, which was a sign of the significant influence of a number ofmedia marketing elements as pertains to beauty products in the UK.Therefore, the research is statistically significant at 5%. This isequal to p&lt0.05. This value suggests that the research recognizesthe approved hypothesis and that the level of confidence issatisfactory.

Model

Summation of squares

df

Mean square

F

Sig

Regression

74.915

6

17.219

58.180

0.000

Residual

85.695

271

.306

Total

277

Aggregate alpha (α): = 1 (confidence level / 100) = 0.05

Probability (p*): = 1 – α/2 = 1 – 0.05/2 = 0.975.

The research’s margin error was also taken into consideration whilecalculating the figures. It stood at 1.85. Therefore, the study had aconfidence of 95%. According to Leech and Onwuegbuzie (2009),Creswell et al. (2007), and Teddlie et al. (2006), this isstatistically significant. The margin error was not significant tothe research. This meant that the proven hypothesis and researchsignificance agreed to the conclusion made from theories.

4.7.1ANOVA

Model

Non-standardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

T

Sig.

B

Standard error

Beta

1 (Constant)

.504

.203

2.768

0.006

Average summation intensity of advertising

.042

.075

.449

6.659

.00334

Average summation of medium of media

.392

.059

.359

5.204

.000

Average summation of customer response

.119

.059

.344

3.119

.009

The table above is a creation of acceptable outcomes with theimpression level of 0.05. This approves the use of the model for thepurposes of this study.

4.7.2Cronbach

For the purpose of the study, a 6 question Likert scale designquestionnaire was used. All the implications of each item in thequestionnaire were measured using SPSS. This means that the studyused the alpha to decide the implications of the items on thequestionnaire. Additionally, the effectiveness of each item’sresponse’s influence on the research was determined using theCronbach alpha. According to Ponterotto and Ruckdeschel (2007) andHayes et al. (2007), the Cronbach alpha is a pointer of consistencyas far as the items are concerned.

Additionally, the discourse numbered items with respect to themeasure of the Likert scale. According to Allen (2007) and Boone andBoone (2007), variations of 0 to 1 are most suitable for thereliability of elements from the Likert scale. Further, 0.7 isidentified as the most decisive value for administering all thevariables in an empirical SPSS process.

5.0DISCUSSION 5.1Introduction

The outcomes of the exploration have been offered in the previousquestion. In order to investigate the researcher hypothesis, theresearcher concentrated on collecting information through a surveyguided by the principles of quantitative research. Backing up thefindings was achieved by incorporating information from thequalitative research and the literature review. The generalimplication of the research results is that the media industry playsa significant role in marketing beauty products and influencing thebuyers’ decisions while at the same time positively influencing thebeauty industry of the UK. In this section, the results of theprevious chapter are discussed according to the hypotheses that havebeen constructed in the first chapter.

5.2Hypotheses discussion

H1: There exists a positive correspondence between the media andconsumer behaviour in the UK beauty product market.

In the UK, the media, especially social media, has demonstrated itsinfluential capability as regards to being a persuasive tool in themarket. As well, other media platforms, such as television, print andradio have shown an equally significant role in helping the beautyproduct customers and consumers make decisions. The UK beautyindustry is flooded with a variety of brands for various beautyapplications, ranging from facials, body creams, manicure andpedicure, amongst several others that are used by consumers. Thesuccess of a particular brand is equivalent to the amount that hasbeen invested in marketing it through the media. The research resultsindicated that the consumers knew more of the products that had beenwell advertised in the media than those that had been poorlyadvertised, or not advertised at all. As such, it was shown that theinformation that was put by the advertisers in the media was adeterminant of how well their product would do in the UK market.Additionally, foreign products from other manufacturers also get intothe hands of the customers and consumers through media marketingefforts.

According to Johnson and Myatt (2006), marketers have takenadvantage of the positive correlation between the media and consumerbehaviour to create their marketing strategies. These strategiesoften entail using icons such as models and actors to advertise theirproducts in the media. Some leading brands such as Nivea have usedtop-notch models and invested hundreds of millions to increase theirproduct’s presence in beauty shops across the U.K. (Hollensen2015). At the same time, the leading beauty product manufactures havepaid radio advertisers and beauty magazines to earn airtime and spacerespectively, for the purposes of advertising their products to thecustomers. By taking advantage of communication through the variousmedia platforms, the marketers have found a way of influencingconsumer decisions. Kim et al. (2008) and Solomon et al. (2009),asserts that the consumer socialization theory posits thatcommunication between the marketers and the buyers affects thelatter’s cognitive and behavioural attitudes.

H2: The media plays a significant role in the growth of the UK beautyindustry.

Upon investigation and analysis of the primary data collected fromthe survey, it was established that the media plays an important rolein the growth of the beauty industry in the UK. According toRaconteur (2014), the country’s beauty industry employed more thanone million people and was approximated to be around 17 billionpounds in the year 2014. The figure was forecasted to grow to about16% by next year (2016). This development can be accredited to thefact that the media has played a significant role in marketing thebeauty products and at the same time, presenting the varieties to theconsumers.

According to Marketme (2015), the media has managed to influencepositively the UK beauty industry by a number of specific ways.First, the media advertisement increases competition in the market.As such, more products are manufactured and presented to the mediaevery other day. According to Aghion and Griffith (2008), one of theindicators of a significantly growing industry is stiff competition.Official company advertisers and bloggers, who give the customers andconsumers an incentive to go out and buy the products, run thecompetitions in media. Also significantly, the media influences thegrowth of the beauty product industry by promoting the brands.According to Porter (2008), one of the tactics used by the mediaadvertisers is presenting their products as ‘eco-friendly’ or‘vegan’. These are some of the incentives that encourage thecustomers and consumers to go for the products.

H3: There is a positive correlation between media advertisement forperceived quality and the prices paid for them by the UK consumers.

The research study unveiled that there was a positive correlationbetween media advertisement for perceived quality and the pricesremunerated for them by the UK consumers. According to Hagtvedt andPatrick (2008), the subjects of consumer perception and price qualityare one of the most widely studied in contemporary business marketingstrategies. Sanchez-Fernandez and Iniesta-Bonillo (2006) also assertthat consumer price-perceived qualities have been used by manyconsumers to level the quality of a product as they purchase. In themedia, there are attributes like product rating, quality of theadverts and reviews from the top consumers. In fact, the media hassuccessfully convinced the buyers that “quality has everything todo with the price”, which has helped many products to move swiftlyout of the shelves. For instance, Fahy and Jobber (2012) say thatsome products with similar characteristics are often sold off to theproduct by using taglines like “it is durable”, which convincethe customers to pay more for certain products than others. Fahy andJober (2012) assert that the advertisers’ word does not necessarilyhave to be taken for the truth, as their main aim is to move theproduct out of the shelves as fast as probable, and to make themaximum profits possible.

H4: The media positively influences the perception of beauty productsamongst the consumers in the UK.

Some marketers have said that the media has a negative impact on anumber of beauty products in the UK (Hennig-Thurau et al. 2010). Theyattribute this to the distortion of message and over-marketing, whichaccording to them, works against convincing the customers to buy theproducts. However, the research demonstrated that the mediapositively influences the beauty products in the UK market. Thishypothesis is closely related to H1, H2 and H3, which report apositive correlation between the role of the media and the beautyproducts. According to Hennig-Thurau et al. (2010), despite the factthat a considerably big number of the buyers are judgmental about theinformation that is given to the beauty products in the media,prompting further research and criticism, the advertisers, throughusing clever marketing strategies, improved the perception of theproducts amongst the buyers quite efficiently. Most of the consumersagreed to the postulate a well-advertised product is a well-soldproduct.

6.0CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6.1Conclusion

Media marketers, beauty product customers and consumers, will findthe outcomes of this research valuable in understanding the role ofthe media in UK’s beauty industry. The research presented factsregarding media advertisement trends and market reception, which canbe used in strategy formulation by the marketers and quality choosingby the buyers. Additionally, by proving the significance of thefindings in the analysis section, the relationship between themanufacturers, marketers and buyers is set to be improved. Asdemonstrated in the research, there are a number of strategies thatthe marketers can use to get the products to the buyers, and at thesame time, the buyers can use the findings of the study to evaluatethe perceived perception of products as a guideline for makinginformed decisions.

All the hypotheses that were postulated were approved. This was donethrough a collection of primary data and subsequent evaluation of thesignificance of the implications they had on the research. As such,the marketers and consumers can have confidence in using the findingsof the research n studying the media influence on the beauty industryand forecasting the future trends. It is the duty of the marketersand the customers to evaluate the specific trends and indicators ofthe beauty industry in regards to the market dynamics to makeeffectively decisions and benefit from the same. At the same time,the media owners have to acknowledge that they play a bigresponsibility in creating the connection between the beauty productmanufacturers and the buyers.

6.2:Recommendations

Given the findings, below are the recommendations for the marketersand consumers.

  1. The media marketers to take advantage of the media influence on consumer perception to market their products.

  2. Evaluation of the media strategies by the marketers to determine the most effective for the UK market

  3. The consumers should do more investigations regarding the quality of beauty products as put in the media to avoid being misled.

  4. The government should implement advertising ethics to avoid end-user mid-perception.

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AppendicesQuestionnaire:

Section A

Please tick appropriately

  1. Gender

Male (1)

Female (2)

  1. Age

20-25 years (1)

30-40 years (3)

25-30 years (2)

40 and above (4)

  1. Level of Education

High School (1)

Graduate (3)

College (2)

Others (specify) (4)

  1. How many years have you worked in Taylor Taylor Salon/been a client of the salon?

0-4 years (1)

10-16 years (3)

4-10 years (2)

16 years and above (4)

Section B

On a scale of 1 to 5, 1 indicating that you “strongly agree” and5 indicating that you “strongly disagree”, please answer thefollowing questions.

  1. Do you often consider details in commercials when making purchase decisions?

  1. Do you think the media has enough information regarding beauty products to convince you?

  1. Has the media ever influenced you to buy a particular product?

  1. Do you think celebrities play a role when it comes to influencing your product decision?

  1. Do you think the media is promoting beauty products in the U.K?

  1. Do you suppose that some consumers pay a lot for perceived product quality?

Section C

Open-ended questions

  1. Do you think the media influence consumers’ tastes and preferences when it comes to making purchasing decisions?

  2. Which is the most important contribution of the media in the beauty industry?

  3. Do you consider online reviews on beauty services and products when making purchases?

  4. Has the media enhanced consumers’ knowledge on beauty products and services?

Table1: Likert Scale

Variable

Coefficient Alpha

Intensity of advertisement

0.749

Media selection

0.551

Customer response

0.7

Table2: Regression analysis

Hypothesis

Result

Supported?

H1: There is a positive correspondence between the media and consumer behaviour in the UK beauty product market

P= 0.00455

Yes

H2: The media plays a significant role in the growth of the UK beauty industry

P=0.001

Yes

H3: There is a positive correlation between media advertisement for perceived quality and the prices paid for them by the UK Consumers

P=0.012

Yes

H4: The media positively influences the perception of beauty products amongst the consumers in the UK

P=0.01

Yes

Model

Summation of squares

df

Mean square

F

Sig

Regression

74.915

6

17.219

58.180

0.000

Residual

85.695

271

.306

Total

277

Table3: ANOVA analysis

Model

Non-standardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

T

Sig.

B

Standard error

Beta

1 (Constant)

.504

.203

2.768

0.006

Average summation intensity of advertising

.042

.075

.449

6.659

.00334

Average summation of medium of media

.392

.059

.359

5.204

.000

Average summation of customer response

.119

.059

.344

3.119

.009