HowTourism Influences Urbanism

Tourismhas brought about different and various outcomes on the urban sectortoday. The influence may be either positive or negative. Indeed theurbanism that has been affected is the new modes of transportation,exchange of culture and so on. The issues have been well discussedand analyzed them include:

Newtransportation technologies made travel ever cheaper and moreflexible. After the rail road had greatly broadened the market, theautomobile further revolutionized travel by giving tourists theability to choose destinations at will. The rise of industrytransformed mere travels into tourists. Through industry, there is amass tourism which involves more than just the movement of largenumbers of people, encompassing the consumption of souvenirs food anddrink Tourism has become one of the world’s most important economicsectors. Travel and comers always have been inextricably entwinedthus it can come as no surprise that recent dramatic increases inbusiness travel constitute an important component of modern tourism.(Feinstein et al, page 1)

Conventionsand conferences bring together individuals sharing an astonishingvariety of vocational business and professional interest ranging fromscience fiction and stamp collecting to collecting enthusiasts andhome furnishings merchants, participants inn these events likebusiness travelers enjoy the benefit of expense accountants(Feinstein et al, page 4). Such meetings take place outside as wellas within cities but cities offer unrivaled groupings of amenities,the accommodations, economic and cultural activities and meetingvenues. Additionally, the wild and curiosity depicted by Instabul inexploring the wide world in music has shown that interests can beinfluential globally. Instanbul influenced the culture life of Turkeyand this was motivated by competition pressures. Music can bring theworld together and can bring an end to racists’ rhetoric nature aswell as enhance the Tourism industry.

Inorder to appeal to tourists, cities must be consciously molded tocreate a physical landscape that tourists wish to inhabit. No citycan afford to stand still for a moment no matter how much money ithas spent doing it. A city that tries to build an economy on tourismmust project itself as a dreamscape of vital consumption. Peopleexpect to experience the heritage, architecture and culture that makeup a city’s essence.

Avast network of institutions has evaded supplying products, servicesand experiences to travelers and tourists. The industry’s majorinstructions include airline companies, banks offering financialservices. The tourism industry is rapidly becoming better organized.Multinational conglomerates shape the industry and wholly dominateparts of it. Airlines which are the largest suppliers of tourist’sservices have gone through global consolidation hence establishingtheir own package tour bureaus which coordinate ground transportationand rental cars hotel and tourists events. The imprint of tourismdevelopment doesn’t constitute the only force shaping thecontemporary ally (Fainstein et al page 10). The impact of tourismon most cities is instantly recognizable and is probably more widespread than that of other industries.

Marketingplays an important role in urban tourism for example one can have agreat city but unless that is recognized by potential buyers, thenumber of visitors will be limited. The Olympic Games represent thebiggest prize for cities seeking mega events. Holcomb states that thecompetition to host Olympic is fierce and indicates the value in bothrevenue and image that cities expect to gain (Page 55). As a directresult of the games, Atlantica attracted an estimated six millionvisitors and look in $ 4- $ 5 billion. Furthermore the city benefitedfrom $ 500 million worth of building projects for local use after thegames.

Lessconspicuous but more frequent activities such as garden and flowershows cultural and ethnic festivals, religious feast day celebrationsand sports events are effective both in attracting temporary visitorsand in gaining media attention for the local. Cities are marked fortourism using a mix of strategies applicable at other geographicalsales and to other products (Holcomb, page 59). Most cities produceguides, maps that show hotels restaurants, transit facilities andlocal attractions.

Packagingand promoting the city tourists can destroy its soul. The city iscommoditized, its form and spirit remade to conform to market demand,not residents, dreams. The local state and business elites collude tomake a city in which their special interests are paramount meanwhileresources are diverted from needy neighborhoods and social services(Holcomb, page 69). InterCity competition for tourists can become thesame zero- sum game as that for footloose industries and mobilecapital.

Greena philosopher, argues that peoples interaction with natureincreasingly involves “leisure and pleasure –tourism, visualrefreshment and spectacular entertainment,” (Holcomb, page 71). Hegoes ahead and documents the effects of leisure travel on the regionsurrounding Paris in the mid –nineteenth century. He says there wasa prolonged “invasion of surrounding regions by and for theParisian spectator.” Two innovations facilitated this invasion: theshortened trip out of the city and the increased ownership of countryhouses. These combined to generate around Paris what he terms“metropolitan nature”- that is spaces outside the city that couldeasily be accessed. Such places were turned into safe recreationaland leisure sites for the city dweller to visit from time to time.

Inthe past, the sense of sight has been transformed by the widespreadadoption of what Sontag calls the promiscuous practices ofphotography. Photography has democratized many forms of humanexperience by, as Barthes says making notable whatever isphotographed. It gives shape to the very process of travel so thatone’s journey consists of moving from one good view to another,each to be captured on a film (Urry, page 75). It has also helped toconstruct a twentieth century sense of what is appropriatelyaesthetic and what is not worth sightseeing: it excludes as much asit includes.

Theimportance of the visual partly undermines the distinction betweenpopular tourism and academic travel. Much academic work consists ofproducing and interpreting visual data. As tourists increasinglydeploy photographic, cinematic and other multimedia material, theyparallel the ways academic produce and interpreted the visual. Theparallels are even closer in the case of disciplines that involvetravel as a key research element (Urry, page73). Thus, Gregoryhighlights the historical significance of the conception of the worldas exhibition for the emergence of the discipline of geography in the18thcentury.

Thisdiscipline appears to have developed on the basis of the visualrepresentation of the world, through the world conceived and graspedas though it were a picture. It is presented as an object on display,to be viewed. Landscapes –townscapes and maps deploy the visualsense as a means of control and surveillance. Both therefore bringout what may be called the dark side of sight, the ways the visual isassociated not only with metaphors of light or understanding or aclear view but with notions of surveillance, control and mastery.

Therate at which culture travel varies, this is perfectly depicted bythe Crossing of the bridge, the sound of Instanbul. At the end of20th century we are experiencing a speeding up of images and signs.The sheer density n velocity of sign and images has taken aconsiderable effect is that cultures and places areinstantaneously communicated around the world, both intentionallythrough the economy of signs. Recent events in the history of a placecan become rapidly historicized and made part of its heritage fortourists, as in the demolition of the berlin wall. (Urry, page 85)Sensational occurrence may invest ordinary places with the status oftourist attraction, mobilizing travelers to visit them while a largeraudience of armchair travelers watches the sensation unfold on theirtelevision screens.Rojek’s description of the effect of the O.JSimpson trial exemplifies the phenomenon.

Thetraditional concept of a tourist culture existing in sharp contrastwith the rest of the society has become less plausible as symbolicrepresentations bombard people in their daily routines. At the sameas Venturi, Scott Brown and Izenours discussion of Las Vegas makesplain, tourist site are increasingly using extravagantly synthetic,accessories to attract tourists. Duplications of Egyptian temples,reconstructions of the Wild West or Victorian England , futuristictheme parks , Gaelic revival centers – all act as magnets to is no longer enough for a tourist site to be merely aplace of action or of dedicated relaxation, (Urry, page 85). Now itmust also distort time and bend space to produce the illusion of anextraordinariness of ecstasy and experience. The closer life in thetourist resort comes to resemble the pure play form, the moretourists will flock to visit. Because tourist’s cultures travel,the ante is never fixed. As we get more reconstructions ofMediterranean villages or Mexican saloons in shopping malls and moreThai and Chinese restaurants in city streets , so the touristindustry in the real Mediterranean villages, the real Mexico,Thailand and in China has to exert itself with ever more contrivedrepresentations of the apparent reality.


Maitland, Robert, and Brent W.Ritchie. City Tourism: National Capital Perspectives.Wallingford, UK: CABI, 2009. Internet resource.

Faistein Susan, Dennis R.J. GlobalForces, Local Strategies, and Urban Tourism, Yale UniversityPress 1999.

Braviel Holcomb, MarketingCities for Tourism, 1999.

John Urray, Sensing the City,1999





CollectiveBargaining Agreements

Collectivebargaining agreements are commercial agreements that are reachedthrough a negotiation between the employers and the employees theynormally regulate the working conditions in the work place.

Inthis scenario the position taken is that of the union (FOP). Theissue is to change step 4 from an advisory arbitration to final andmaking it a binding arbitration. This change is common in labouragreements. One should inform the supervisor of the issue or thematter to be addressed who later informs the next person in the rankof the issue who may be a supervisor. The aggrieved member willdiscuss the matter in order to find a resolution.

Adisciplinary procedure needs to be brought when either of the partiesacts contrary to a particular agreement. They may decide to bring anarbitrator or use the law through the courts to ensure it’sachieved.

Memberswho are sued for line of duty actions after they leave the policedepartment are provided legal defense by Metro. The law works andserves the people in order to resolve differences and conflicts whichmay arise among them therefore providing legal protection. Thisprotection provided by the law ensures that there is equality,fairness and justice.

Membersbelieve they have lost ground to inflation in recent years.Previously it was common for the FOP contract to include salaryincrease. Hiro gave his view on police corruption whereby there is aculture of illicit money making in the NPA and has vested itselfdeeply over the ages. A police officer by the name Senba, publishedan article which showed corruption by the police. It containedfinancial scams, beating of suspects, and forced confessions hence aconclusion is drawn that majority of the crime done is by the police.

Currentcourt pay provision has not been increased for the last 8 years thusdoes not match the state overtime pay. A request to increase thecurrent $ 46 could be anticipated. Metro currently spends about $ 1.3million per year on court pay. An example is the Ireland court whichurges deal on payments in that the labour court requested one of theworld’s largest unions to make a deal over the unions claim forbonus payments for members work.

Inthis case members of the FOP decided that that an assignment bechanged from an advisory arbitration to final making it binding.

Changesto this include “aunts, uncles and significant others to thebereavement leave definition of immediate family .Annual leave orholiday may be given by separate check directly to each member whichis popular practice because members view the extra as a specialbonus.

Somestatutes and acts spell out situations where leaves need to beapproved, for instance, The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. Thedefinition is expanded to include grandparents and significantothers. Sick leave guarantees workers paid time off to stay at homewhenever they are unwell. Some may favor family members in order toensure that they receive the attention of a doctor. Sick leave mayalso involve a short term or a long term illness depending on theemployer and the terms agreed.

Dueto denial of two recent requests involving uniforms torn in the lineof duty, a new language may be added to ensure replacement of newuniforms.

TheFOP would want to maintain the current health insurance, copays andpremiums into the next contract and no changes to the article forthey believe that salary increases were provided to maintain healthstandards hence they have paid for the benefit. Some statutes andlaws also favor the health of individuals and require for the healthbenefit of an employee especially if one is working in a differentcountry away from his motherland. In order to achieve this, anagreement between an employer and an employee should be reached uponto provide the nature of sickness and when the insurance should betaken.

Theterm of the contract should be well stipulated in order to provideadequate time for either of the parties to ensure that they are wellinformed so as to know on the correct procedure to be taken when theterm ends and to avoid losses In this case the issue is that the termof bargaining had expired and begun negotiations of the terms of anew contract unfortunately there was a lot of tension. An increaseshould be made in order to compensate for the effects of theinflation. This is a vital basic need that should be agreed upon witha lot of concern. in the process of bargaining it should be notedthat the allowances made should prevent the suffering and shouldfavor the basic need such as this regardless of the factors that maylead to the constrain and running short of this necessity.


Hayter, Susan.The Role of Collective Bargaining in the Global Economy:Negotiating for Social Justice. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Pub,2011. Internet resource.

Source Book onCollective Bargaining: Wages, Benefits, and Other Contract Issues.Washington, D.C: BNA PLUS, Bureau of National Affairs, 1995. Print.

Ameglio, EduardoJ, and Roger Blanpain. The Actors of Collective Bargaining: AWorld Report Xvii World Congress of Labour Law and Social Security,Montevideo, September 2003. The Hague [u.a.: Kluwer LawInternational, 2004. Print.





TheWhite House Correspondents Dinner is a ritual that has been there fora long time. The Presidents usually attend this dinner with thejournalists who cover them as they unleash the best works of theprevious year. Cecily Strong hosted the 2015 dinner. Obama being thepresident was at it, he cracked many jokes at the dinner for theassembled crowd.

Oneof the jokes that President Obama cracked was that of Grey hairs, hesaid that he looked so old that Netahanyu had already been invited tohis funeral by John Boehners. He went on to add that the First Ladylooks so great and when he asks her her secret she says that that itsvegetables and fresh fruits. He said that using Michelle’s voice.Another joke is that of aloof and arrogance, he said that people saythat he’s arrogant however he thinks those people are dumb. President Obama also joked about Baiden’s back messages, sayingthat those Joe Baiden’s messages are like magic and that peopleshould try them, if they haven’t tried yet.

Intaking part in the tradition that brings the celebrities, media andpoliticians together Cecily also joked taking the microphone to thepodium, she said that it felt right to have a woman follow PresidentObama, as a start up. Cecily also joked about the Hillary campaign,she said that she was excited that Hillary was running however shewas not sure whether Hillary was excited about the idea of having torun. She compared Hillary’s feelings of having to run with those ofMeryl Streep when she asked to do an audition, because it’s obviousshe (Meryl) will win, thus it doesn’t make any sense or differencewhen she auditions. She also joked about Obama’s performance shesaid that his approval rating is 48% after being in office for sixyears and his grey hair is at 85% such that it’s so white it couldtalk back to the police.