Q.1 The nation of Iraq has shallow roots from the time it was a Britishcolony. Today, Iraq is a homogenous Arab nation with largepopulations of three different Arabic sects or tribes. There are theShiites, the Sunnis and the Kurds. During the time of Britishimperialism in Iraq, the British left a Sunni Arab for a King whowere the minority at the time and surrounded him with a group ofelite Sunnis and an army which was dominated by Sunnis. Thiseventually relegated the Shiites and the Kurds as second classcitizens and this has negatively affected the Iraqi economy andpolitics over the last century. The Sunnis have always controlled theIraqi government for decades and have consistently oppressed theother two Arab groups the Shiites and the Kurds. In order to protecttheir wealth and dynasty the elites in politics have also turned totheir tribes men who they believe will be loyal to their cause andthe rest of the two groups have never been allowed to makesignificant contributions to the economy and politics of Iraq. As aresult, Iraq has always been divided as only on tribe has ruled thecountry for centuries leaving the other two tribes in the cold.
Q.2 President Saddam Hussein ruled Iraq with an Iron fist. Being aSunni and hailing from an abusive family, Saddam learnt thatoppression and intimidating people works and this is how he ruled thecountry for the last three decades before his demise. For example,during 1988 he killed 5,000 of his own people, who were Kurds forsuspecting them to be disloyal. Iraqi prison cells were also filledwith people who were suspected of opposing his dictatorial form ofrule in the country (MacFARQUHAR,2006).
MacFARQUHAR,N. (2006, December 30). SaddamHussein, Defiant Dictator Who Ruled Iraq With Violence and Fear, Dies.Retrieved May 7, 2015, from The New York Times:http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/30/world/middleeast/30saddam.html?pagewanted=all