is also known as under nutrition is a situation where diet does notgive the body enough calories and proteins for growth and maintenanceor it cannot utilize the food eaten because of illness. Accordingto Brown and Atkins (2010), malnutritionrefers to the condition, which results from eating a diet that lackssome nutrients, wrong proportion and or in excess intake. The effectof malnutrition in the cardiovascularis that it can cause diseases such as coronaryheart disease, Cardiomyopathy,hypertensive heart disease, heart failure, cardiac dysrhythmias, andValvular heart disease.

also has great effects on lung functions and severe effects includereducedrespiratory muscle function, decreased ventilatory drive, alterationsof lung parenchyma, cardiovascular dysfunction, sepsis, trauma, andweakening of lung defense mechanisms.&nbspThehuman immune system is not left out when looking at the effects ofmalnutrition. The condition can cause Leishmaniadonovani&nbspinfection,which will make the body become weak and unable to fight any diseasethat attacks it (Brownand Atkins, 2010).

Consumptionof too many calories can also cause people to be malnourished asituation known as over nutrition. can also beconsidered as the excessive or insufficient or imbalanced consumptionof nutrients. Depending on which nutrients lack in the body or are inexcess, various nutrition disorders can develop (Cope, 2008).The WHO considers malnutrition as a grave threat to global health. is prevalent among children below five although otherpopulations are also affected the impact is not as fatal like in thechildren. as a health issue prevents the children fromreaching full mental and physical potential and this can lead todelayed physical growth low intelligent quotient behavioral problemsand other social skills. Children who are malnourished are at ahigher risk of contracting diseases .Unfortunately 60% of childmortality in sub Saharan Africa is linked to malnutrition (FAO,2006).

Variousprograms have been used to try and fight malnutrition especially inthe sub Saharan Africa where the cases are prevalent. There aresponsored children who have access to regular health and othermalnutrition screenings to ensure that there are no health risks orsigns of under feeding. This helps reduce and even alert individualson the challenges of malnutrition. Sometimes children who aremalnourished are provided with nutritious meals and are kept undermonitoring to try and reverse the situation and make sure they havebetter health.Otherprograms are made to educate the parents on the basics of nutritionand given some training on meal preparation. They also getinformation on preparation of nutritious meals from the locallyavailable and cheap foods.Inother countries feeding programs are used where each child is given anutritious meal at least once a day. Another program is the communitycenter where the sponsored kids get training on growing of nutritiousvegetables even on small pieces of land (Stratton,Green and Elia, 2013).The above programs are successful because they do not require anymoney and are meant for people who are prone to malnutrition or whoare already experiencing.

Thepolicy of having the affected children get information and trainingon nutritious meals should be replaced with a policy program thatwill ensure this information is passed on to parents before thechildren get affected. This program should be made like a law tocompel parents to have gardens where they can have the nutritiousfoods planted in very small portions of land. This means the risk ofmalnutrition is reduced and parents are aware of the nutritionalneeds of their children. To put this information across, thegovernments will have to take this information to schools and trainthe children on proper nutritional methods. There can also beseminars to educate communities on malnutrition on a broader aspectnot necessarily as a problem concerning the children only. Theseseminars can be done in political rallies, church and socialgatherings. It is believed that 80% of information passed in ralliesgets to many people as compared to schools and health facilities(Stratton,Green and Elia, 2013).People should be given advice on how small pieces of land or spacecan be used to plant crops that have nutritional values. This policyis cheap and effective because everyone has space where they stay andall that is needed is the knowledge on the planting and what toplant.

Thepolicy I’m advocating for is new and needs new legislations to beput in place. Most governments have ignored the food sector andconcentrated on the agriculture as a broad subject. For this reasonthere has not been any policy to help people fight malnutritiondespite the fact that it is a health challenge and contributes highlyfor the mortality rates in many countries. Currently people are freeto plant their own plants at will with no specifications on what theyneed. Also people get education when they need and this meansinformation on the fight against malnutrition will not be passedunless the information is passed specifically on nutrition.Governments need to have policies that are meant to educate peopleand even make sure they are able to implement what they are taught.

Effortshave been made by formulating policies that can reduce poverty withan aim of ensuring equal distribution of food.However, particularpolicies to tackle malnutrition do not exist. The existing laws canbe of help in the advocacy efforts because they create room forcreation of new policies. The government has the role to ensure thatindividuals are provided with good health and the policies forprovision of better health can be used to ensure that malnutrition isreduced. The laws meant to provide quality health care to individualscan also be used to base the need to have individuals plant theircrops that will give them good health and help fight childmalnutrition (Stratton,Green and Elia, 2013).

Evidence-basedpolicy advocates for the use of science in explaining or supportingany information. Considering the fact that proper nutritional habitscan lead to improved health is reason enough to get support for thepolicy to ensure each individual takes nutritious meals. Thephilosophical approach looks at the human rights and this can helpsupport the policy because each individual has a right to betterquality of health and life. In this regard, it is easy to convincethe policy makers to work towards supporting the policy to help thegovernment to have fewer expenses in providing health to itscitizens. The economic policy also advocates for the provision ofhealth services that are cost effective but ensuring that thecitizens are taken care of. TheDietary restrictions or collectively known as a total reduction inthe intake of food without necessarily getting it associated withmalnutrition. It further leads to an increase in the life span andthe average health span of an individual together with the acutestress resistance in a number of model organisms (Smithand Haddad, 2009).Organisms are ranging right from the simple one like yeast to themost complicated organisms like the primates. Although the dietaryrestrictions are very beneficial for the general health of humans,this kind of therapy is not very widely used in the clinics.

Themain challenge is the limited recognition by the senior policymakers. Little effort is made by these people to ensure thatmalnutrition is tackled because they have scanty information on theissue. To overcome this challenge it will be necessary to firsteducate the policy makers why this policy is important and how itwill work. The food sector is generally under financed and it needsmore groups to advocate for an increase in the funds meant for foodsector. Another challenge is the fact that the activist groups tendto ignore the malnutrition issue and concentrate on the politicalaffairs. Efforts shall be made to try and convince the variousactivist groups to help in advocating for better nutritionalpractices.

Theethical dilemma likely to be incurred includes the fact thatconvincing the activist groups to be on the side of the policy maylook like an incitement to the government. It could look like thepolicy or program has a hidden intention and this could be the reasonfor lobbying people to support it. The ethics laws demand that thegovernment and other stakeholders be informed on the campaigns toavoid any doubts of being involved in illegal activities. The ethicalchallenge to be faced include the insufficient knowledge especiallyon the exact crops that need to be planted because the various areashave different climates and not uniform crops can be used (Stratton,Green and Elia, 2013).To explain the various crops fit for different areas can bechallenging and it may appear like the campaign lacks adequateinformation.

Inconclusion, malnutrition is a big health issue that needs to beaddressed to stop the increasing mortality rates especially for thechildren under five years. The impact of malnourishment can beadverse since a child’s physical, social and mental well being of achild is hindered. The policy of ensuring that each family has asmall garden with nutritious crops that can be consumed at least oncea day can help reduce the risk of malnourishment (Smithand Haddad, 2009).Children need to be involved in the education to expand on theinformation for better nutrition. Advocating for this policy may needone to do extensive research to ensure that the campaign has enoughinformation needed on the policy. There is also need to try andfollow the ethical laws that are required to ensure that there are nolaws broken in the campaigns (Reutlinger,2011).The activists also need to be informed on the campaign to help sincethey have the ability to reach many people and other governmentofficials who may be involved in policy making.


Brown,G. &amp Atkins, M, (2010). Introductionto Common Diseases. London,United Kingdom: Methuen &ampCo. Ltd.

Cope,K. (2008). in the elderly: A national crisis.S.l.: Diane Pub Co.

FAO(Rome). (2006). Thedouble burden of malnutrition: Case studies from six developingcountries.Rome: Food and agriculture organization of the United nations (FAO).

Reutlinger,S. (2011). :A poverty or a food problem?.Chapel Hill: Institute of Nutrition, University of North Carolina.

Smith,L. C., &amp Haddad, L. (2009). Explainingchild malnutrition in developing countries: A cross-country analysis.Washington, DC: International food policy research institute (IFPRI.

Stratton,R. J., Green, G. J., &amp Elia, M. (2013). Disease-relatedmalnutrition: An evidence-based approach to treatment.Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.