Name

Engineering

Engineeringis described as the application of economic, scientific, practicalknowledge and social knowledge in order to innovate, model,construct, research, maintain, and enhance machines, structures,devices, materials, processes, and structures. This field is highlywide and includes a range of more specialized areas of engineering,with each having a more precise emphasis on an individual part ofpractical science, technology, and forms of application. A personpractising architecture is known as an engineer, while those givenofficial permission to do so may have more formal designations likeChartered Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, or EuropeanEngineer.

Background

Engineeringis known to have been in existence since historic times. Thisoccurred as human found significant inventionslike the lever,wheel, wedge, and pulley. Each of this innovations is constant withthe conventional description of engineering, making use of mechanicalphilosophies to come up with essential tools and objects. The term&quotengineering&quot, a derivative of &quotengineer&quot,originates back to 1300, a time when the word referred to a personwho constructed military engines. On the other end, the word &quotengine&quotwas used to refer to a military machine. An engine is coined from theword &quotIngenium&quot(c. 1250), relating to natural quality, particularly mentalabilities, there coiled to intelligent inventions. In years to come,as the construction of civilian applications like buildings andbridges came into maturityas a technical field, the word civil engineering came into existence.It was established to differentiate between those concentrating inthe buildingof non-military projects the ones still focused on the conventionalfield of military engineering.

AncientEra

Thereare various works of engineering that have existed for many years.For instance, the Egyptian pyramids, Pharaohs of Alexandria, theAcropolis, the Parthenon both in Greece, The colosseum,Via Appia, the Roman Aqueducts, the Great Wall of China and manyother constructions remain some of the most famous architecturaldesigns of the ancient era. Imhotepwasone of the earliest and highly famous civil engineers. He was anintegralmember of the Djoser,Pharaoh and was handed responsibility to design and take charge ofthe building of the &quotPyramid of Djoser”basedat the town of Saqqara in Egypt. This was done between the years of2630 to 2611 BC.

AncientGreeks invented machines in both militaries and civilian domains. Thefirst known mechanical computer known as the Antikytheramechanism andthe groundbreakinginnovations of Archimedes are instances of initial mechanicalengineering. Some of the inventions of Archimedes the great and theAntikythera mechanism needed complex skills and knowledgebase including the knowledge of epicyclic gearing and differentialgearing. These are the two standard components of machinetheory that aided the modelling of the gear trains used in theIndustrial Revolution. Today, the two are still widely utilized invarious fields like automotive engineering and robotics. In war, thebattle front, Greek, Chinese, and Roman armies used sophisticatedmilitary inventions and piecesof equipmentsuch as artillery that was introduced in Greece in the 4thcentury BC. Other forms of warfare types of equipmentincluded the catapult, ballista, and the trireme. Meanwhile, thetrebuchet was invented in the Middle Ages.

However,great achievements were made in the Renaissance Era. There were a lotof concepts introduced into the society the great minds of the time.The inventions covered almost all areas of creativity including art,agriculture, communication, and most importantly engineering. One ofthe most popular inventors was William Gilbert. He was an electricalengineer credited with inventing the magnet. Additionally, he is alsoknown for coining the term &quotelectricity&quot. The initial steamlocomotive was established in 1698 by ThomasSavery.The development of this method triggered the rise and growth of theIndustrial Revolution in the preceding years. This ushered in thestart of mass production. The rise of engineering as an occupation inthe 18thcentury led to its application to disciplines in which science andmathematics were practiced. Likewise, in addition to civil andmilitary engineering the fields then referred to as mechanic artsbecame encompassed into engineering.

ModernEra

Theinitial stages of electrical engineering included the experimentscomprised of the inventions of AlessandroVolta inthe 1800s, Georg Ohm, Michael Faraday and other significant mentionsin the innovation of the electric motor which occurred in 1872.Later, the inventions of HeinrichHertz andJames Maxwellin closing years of the 19 century gave precedence to the disciplineof electronics. The later innovations of the vacuum cleaner and thetransistor further hastened the growth of electronics to a greatextent. This led to the increase of professionals in the fieldleading to an imbalance between electronic engineers and those fromother engineering disciplines.

Branchesof Engineering

Thereare various branches of engineering namely:

  • Civil Engineering

  • Chemical Engineering

  • Mechanical Engineering

  • Electrical Engineering

Apartfrom these four are other subdivisions of the discipline. There existmining and naval engineering which used to be principal branches ofengineering.In addition, design covers a wide area of fields that are too wide tomention in this paper.

Inconclusion, engineering has positively impacted on the lives ofhumans and is known as one of the key influencers of today’sdevelopment.

WorksCited

Bozeman,B., &amp Boardman, C. (2004). The NSF Engineering Research Centersand the university– industry research revolution: a brief historyfeaturing an interview with Erich Bloch.&nbspThe

Journalof Technology Transfer,&nbsp29(3-4),365-375.

Dym,C. L., Agogino, A. M., Eris, O., Frey, D. D., &amp Leifer, L. J.(2005). Engineering design thinking, teaching, and learning.&nbspJournalof Engineering Education,&nbsp94(1),103-120.

Gorod,A., Sauser, B., &amp Boardman, J. (2008). System-of-systemsengineering management: A review of modern history and a pathforward.&nbspSystemsJournal, IEEE,&nbsp2(4),484-499.

Kirby,Richard Shelton, ed.&nbspEngineeringin History.Courier Corporation, 1990.