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Hegel,Marx And Nietzsche Ideas on Freedom
Freedomis the right and the ability of an individual to express him orherself in terms of acting, speaking and thinking without anyconstrictions or restrains. Different people viewed the achievementof freedom differently different theorists came up with differentperceptions of how people view the society as a whole. We shall focuson theorists such as Karl Marx, Georg Hegel and Friedrich Nietzsche,who looked at freedom at different levels in the society.
Hegelwas a philosopher who believed that the existence of freedom was intwo natures objective and subjective, where objectively, he lookedat the society and subjectively at the nature and logic of anindividual. He focused on how the human mind expanded through humanexperience. When one seeks to achieve a certain goal, but hits abarrier in the process, the person conscious lacks freedom andtherefore, freedom can only be achieved in the reconciliation of theself-conscious and what caused the barrier. Without knowledge, it’simpossible to have a free spirit and mind.Communismis a theory of Karl Marx, which states that the wealth in the societyshould be publicly owned and that everyone should work hard to getpaid. In the ancient society, there was no such thing as classdifference, unlike in the contemporary society where there is a classdifference between those with high social status and those with lowsocial status. The individuals who managed to climb the social ladderhave made sure they stay there even at the expense of those in lowersocial status. The capitalist, people who own business privately fromthe state, manage to exploit the less advantaged by giving them toomuch work with very little pay making themselves richer and theothers poorer.
Socialismis the state ownership of a society’s wealth and resources. Thosein power, however, manage to benefit themselves creating a huge gapbetween those in power and the common people. Marx argues that thereshould be a fair competition between individuals in the society andthat there should be freedom to access things that are state ownedfollowing the right procedure without any restrictions. Socialstratification in terms of social class has brought about alienation.Alienation is when an individual feels estranged in their ownexistence. Those who are less privileged feel like they do not havefreedom even in the place where they are supposed to have a sense ofbelonging. This is because of how they undergo exploitation from thedominant class. Marx argues that there should be freedom of thinking,talking and acting without feeling the pressure they might do or saysomething they are not supposed to.
Self-assertionis the forceful expression of one’s views and values and makingthem look superior to the others. Nietzsche, though an atheist, hecriticized the people who claimed that God was dead, so that they canjustify their immorality. His point was that ideas were relative andthat no one had the right to criticize other people’s thoughts. Hesays that people are entitled to their own ideas and the modernsociety should avoid giving the peoples’ conditions on how to livetheir lives. It should not be as obvious as put across if someone isbetter than the directly opposite in terms of social values is evil.Existentialism main focus is human existence and how human beingsmake their existence rational in a universe which is irrational.People work towards finding the meaning of life because they refuseto acknowledge the presence of any transcendent power. The theoryfocuses on how there is no purpose of existence, that it justhappened and therefore they work on embracing it and looking for apurpose. It gives an individual the freedom and choice to decide whatto make of his or her life and therefore everyone is responsible forwhat they become.
Inconclusion, an individual is supposed to live in this universewithout any fear whatsoever. The stratification of society intosocial classes should not be viewed as a way of separatingindividuals, but instead of motivating them economically andsocially. When faced by a trying time, they should be able to expressthemselves fearlessly to avoid exploitation of their nature. Byfreedom, the world will become a better place other than a placewhere only the strong at heart can achieve leaving the rest tosuffer.