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BystanderEffect in Public Schools

Thebystander effect refers to a social situation where people do notoffer help to a person amidst a crisis. This is defined as a socialpsychological phenomenon. The spectators stand and observe as thevictim is being harassed and do nothing despite them having a senseof empathy to the victim. The number of spectators around the victimhas a huge impact on the bystander effect (Kobayashi &amp Futoshi).The probability of offering help decreases with the increase in thenumber of spectators as observers find it difficult to accept theobligation of offering assistance in the presence of a lot of people.An example where the bystander effect plays a huge role is inpromoting bullying in our public schools.

Thebystander effect has been related to different causes, orcontributing factors. However, there are two major factors which aregreatly related to the effect among people. One is the presence ofother people, which in turn is believed to create a scenario referredto as diffusion of responsibility. Due to the presence of the otherobserving group of people, individuals then feel reluctant to takeaction. This is due to the feeling that, the responsibility is sharedamong the people around. Another factor that contributes to thiseffect is the tendency for people to behave in what is defined ascorrect and socially acceptable ways. When some observers fail totake action, other individuals may take to the idea that, responsemay not be needed. This is explained by the idea that onlookers,mostly fear to participate when the situation may look ambiguous.

BystanderEffect in School Context

Bullyingis an increasing problem in public and private schools with manynegative consequences to the victims and their families persistinginto adulthood, these effects can be physical such as injuries,emotional, psychological, mental and social (Polanin et al 50). Theother negative impacts are noted on both the bully and thebystanders. Most research addresses the role of the bully and that ofthe bullied forgetting that of the bystanders. The bystandersactually hold a powerful position in relation to bullying(Drosopoulos et al). However, the bullying actions don’t not onlyinvolve the bully, and the bullied, but there are other students whoare onlookers. They can either prevent it or promote it. This paperdiscusses the bystander effect in public schools and the effect thishas in propagating bullying.

Despitethe introduction of many programs that aim at preventing bullying,the cases of bullying have increased considerably with 1 out of every3 children being bullied in the first two months (Lodge &ampFrydenberg 332). However, most of these cases occur in the presenceof an audience who often fail to do anything to stop thevictimization hence leading to a culture of silence on bullying.According to Lodge more than half of the students, who witnessbullying behavior, do nothing about it, but rather stand by andpassively watch (Lodge &amp Frydenberg 332). By passively watchingas one is being bullied, the peer bystander is actually lengtheningand encouraging the bully to continue. In so doing, the bystanderbecomes a participant in the bullying act by providing the audience.

Thereare two major reasons why bystanders do not intervene when theywitness cases of bullying. These reasons are due to social influenceand diffusion of responsibility. Social influence mainly through peerpressure leads to the conformity of thoughts that bullying isacceptable and a normal occurrence thus leading to no one taking anaction to prevent it (Lodge &amp Frydenberg 332). A study done by‘Lodge and Frydenberg’ questioned bystanders about theirreactions and thoughts about the bully. Most respondents had a senseof hatred and displeased with the bully. They however sympathizedwith the victim and wished to help but did not do so despite thedesire to help. They cited different reasons for their inaction oneof them being the not wanting the attention of being diverted to themfor intervening or fearing to be victims themselves. Others said thatthey had no idea on how to intervene and felt powerless over thesituation while others believed that the victim deserved it as theyhad other personal grudges with him/her (Lodge &amp Frydenberg 332).

Thereare many factors that affect the reactions of bystanders with themost important one being self-esteem. Bystanders with lowself-esteem, lack courage to intervene whereas those with highself-esteem support the victim who is being bullied. The ones withlow self-esteem have been found to join the bully (Polanin et al 56).It is important to raise the self-esteem of students as this promotestheir ability to intervene and prevent bullying. This can be done byteaching student’s effective problem solving methods,communication, decision making and goal setting. This raises theirself-esteem and teaches them how to handle different situations inlife such as bullying.

Diffusionof responsibility among the bystanders is another factor that leadsto inactiveness among the observers (Drosopoulos et al,). Everyspectator does not take it as his/her responsibility to stop the actand believes that another person and not they should intervene. Mostpeople see it as the responsibility of another person such as theteacher or other grownups to stop the act. They view other bystandersas the most qualified to intervene and not themselves (Polanin et al56). The presence of other people who seem to best placed tointervene, therefore, leads many of the individuals doing nothing tohelp the victim. As a result, the culture of bullying is perpetuatedin the public schools.

Thebystander can be a witness, an observer or a participant in the actof bullying. He/she has the power to either stop or sustain thebullying behavior (Drosopoulos et. al). A bystander sustains thebullying behavior by reinforcing the act through practices such aslaughing, joining the bully and being his/her associate or follower,or by defending the bully. On the other hand, the bystander can stopthe bullying by defending the victim from the bully or by seekingadult help. This has shown to reduce bullying patterns in publicschools.

Thefirst step to preventing the bystander effect is recognizing itsexistence. The reasons for its existence should be addressed as well.The second step should be raising the responsibility of thebystanders. They should believe that there is something that they cando to stop the bullying. This would discourage the diffusion ofresponsibility effect and therefore teach the bystanders to help out(Kobayashi &amp Futoshi). Programs aimed at reducing bullying shouldnot only focus on the bully or the one being bullied, but should alsofocus on the bystander behavior (Lodge &amp Frydenberg p330).Students should be taught from early stages how to stop bullyingrather than be told to report to the teacher or an adult (Drosopouloset. al). This would therefore reduce the bullying cases significantlysince most of the bullying cases have bystanders. Within the schoolcontext, the anti-bullying measure would equally help in curbing thebystander effect among the leaners or within the school. This wouldbe due to the fact that, the onlookers won’t fear the victimizationby the bullies once they intervene the situation.

Inconclusion, the bystander effect is a major influence in encouragingbullying especially. This is more so if the bystanders join the bullyin victimizing the person. Taking the initiative to speak out againstbullying is a major step in reducing the bystander effect and as aresult discourages bullying. Schools should therefore prevent thiseffect if they are to eradicate bullying. They should createawareness of what actions that they should take when they witnessbullying. This can help in creating a good example for the otherbystanders which in turn lead to a unanimous decision to stopbullying. There should be anti-bullying programs in schools and theyshould be open for all students joining since it is theresponsibility of every person to prevent bullying. Grown-ups shouldprepare students to be good bystanders by teaching them the diverseways they can make a difference. They should also support them whenthey step forward to stop bullying. Grown-ups should also give casesof how supportive observers have indicated bravery and made an impactin their own particular encounters.


&quotBystanderEffect | Psychology Today.&quot Web. 30 Apr. 2015.&lt

Drosopoulos,J. Dan, Heald, A. Zachariah,and McCue, M. John. “MinimizingBullying Behavior of Middle School Students through BehavioralIntervention and Instruction.” EBSCOHOST, n.d., Web, April 1, 2015Education week :10/08/2014 vol.34 issue 7 pg 1-16, 2 p

Kobayashi,Futoshi. “Bullying in Japanese Schools.” EBSCOHOST,1999-09-00,Web, April 1, 2015

Lodge,Jodie and Frydenberg, Erica. “The Role of Peer Bystanders in SchoolBullying: Positive Steps Toward Promoting Peaceful Schools.” TheoryInto Practice. Autumn2005, Vol. 44 Issue 4, p329-336. 8p. 2 Charts

Polanin,Joshua, Espelage, Dorothy and Pigott, Therese. “A Meta-Analysisof School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs` Effects on BystanderIntervention Behavior.” School Psychology Review. 2012, Vol. 41Issue 1, p47-65. 19p


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EnlistedAssociation of the National Guard of the United States

EANGUSstands for “EnlistedAssociation of the National Guard of the United States”. This is one of the key organizations within the National Guarddepartment. The organization was started in the year 1970 with itsmain aim being to raise the voice of the people in the National Guardteam and focus on National issues (EANGUS,2015).It was spread across the 25 states of America each having its ownterritory. The seniors and members of this association have beenworking to increase membership in these military organizations(Doubler, 12).

EANGUS,Its Membership Improvement Strategies

Peoplein the military are responsible for the National Guard team in termsof benefits for the people who are still working for the governmentand those who have retired manpower, equipment’s and facilities(Doubler, 19). Their purpose is to increase quality of life for thosewho work for that team. This association has increased in popularityover the years and promoted more registration and membership. TheEANGUS’smain initiative is to lower the cost and make sure that they workwithin the budget presented or even lower to avoid closure or shutdown by the force (EANGUS,2015).This makes the Government able to achieve the needed budget and thuslessen the strain presented by other forces. They advocate for fulltime workers other than part time, this is to reduce the dual role ofthe guards, therefore, reduce the dual pay and thereby work withinthe budget (Rush, 61). Through the enlisted association, members areable to access various benefits such as retirement, health andeducation. The EANGUSis one of the military associations that came up with National GuardBureau that represented the members in problems related to law andgave every member the right to raise concerns whenever necessary andthey were given equal rights.

Italso works to make sure that those who have been working as guardsfor up to or over 20 years should be prioritized when they apply forcivil service jobs (Rush, 33). They should be given preferencesbecause they have been working for the Government for quite some timeand just like the other individuals they deserve equal chances whenit comes to job promotions. The EANGUSofficials have come up with strategies to increase the membership ofthe guards in the association. One of the most effective strategiesis advertising. Through advertisement, people get to get as muchinformation as they need. They also get answers to any questions theymay need and therefore whenever they come to apply for membership,they come with full knowledge of what they are getting themselvesinto (Michael, 32).

Theyshould also organize for team building and community services. Inthat process, they should put up banners and give out flyers thatexplains what goes on in the association for those who do notunderstand to understand better and thus those who are interested inapplying, they will do the necessary (Michael, 46). These servicesalso show that it’s a serious organization and that they have thegood of everyone in that group and outside at heart. The organizationshould also make sure that they stick to their word. Everything theypromise the members they should come into being. This puts a goodword out on the street and therefore people become more interested init. Just in case they are not doing as they say, they put themselvesin danger of people withdrawing their membership and others fail toapply for it, therefore, fulfillments of promises they make are key.

Inconclusion, it is very important for those who are in the militaryand the night guards to have people in the Government who care fortheir well-being and people who look into their grievances wheneverthey present them. These organizations are very effective since theyreach the legislative arm of the Government normal people do notmanage to reach. These organizations are a link between the workersand the Government.


Doubler,Michael D. TheNational Guard and Reserve: A Reference Handbook.Westport, Conn: Praeger Security International, 2008. Print.

EANGUS,‘The EnlistedAssociation of the National Guard of the United States. Retrieved on30thApril 2015. From: 2012. Print.

Rush,Robert S. NcoGuide.Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2010. Internet resource.


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Correlationbetween Music and Business

Fromthe rich, diverse and complex models of business, to the catchy songsof Beatles, business and music overlap in all kinds of interestingways. Beyond the basic applications of business ideas in the musicindustry, music has been a source of research in different areas ofbusiness. On one note, certain music pieces have ended up beingpopular due to their performance in terms of business aspects. Thelinkage between music, physical practice and excellent businessperformance, have been demonstrated in studies to show that learnerswho engage in playing music instruments performs better in businessclasses. The business discipline has become one of the majordisciplines studied in the modern world in in many colleges globally.Moreover, music has become a career for many artists, and it hasbecome an equally important discipline. Music has become integratedinto business and vice versa.

Thereis a strong correlation between business and music. There are severalconcepts that are used in music that are important and can helpmanagers or entrepreneurs in their day to day activities. This isbased on the concept that most of the things that are done in musichave an equivalent or are required by a person who is operating in abusiness environment. This may include the managers, CEO’s, as wellas those who are operating in entrepreneurship environments. Thispaper highlights the correlation between music and my major(Business), and how music is inherently the same as business.

Asstated earlier, music can be of help to an average business manageras each musical idea draws a parallel in the workplace. One of theways that the two relates comes when one compares a person who isdissatisfied with his job and the musician who attempts to rise abovethe mediocre. One thing is that a musician will go throughcontemplation the same way that an employee dissatisfied with his jobdoes. A musician will always attempt to rise above the mediocre whenhe or she is performing to an audience that is not interested or whenhe or she is not motivated. This is the same way that a sales managerwill motivate himself in order to increase the sales despite himbeing dissatisfied with his or her job.

Theother thing is the fact that business today is customer-centric thesame way that a performer connects with the audience in a successfulmanner. When a musician wants to connect with his or her audience, heor she will try a new format or composition with the aim ofimpressing the audience. This will keep the audience buying his orher music or attending his or her concerts. Failure to do this willmean that the musicians will lose fans, which translates to loss ofincome as fewer people will be willing to buy his or her music. Thismeans that, the musicians will have to give thoughts to the needs andwishes of the audience for him or her to succeed. This is the sameanalogy when it comes to business. In most cases, a business managerwill have to think of the ethical ways to interact with the customersof the consumers of the goods or services that the company sells.This is because the completion in business means that consumers willgo into the business that caters for their needs and where they arehighly appreciated. This means that a business manager has to becustomer oriented for the business to be successful.

Onthe same way, the business has to stay way above, it’s compete torsin order to be able to retain a loyal customer base. Failure to do sowill mean that the company will lose the loyal customers to theircompetitors. This translates to a decline in the company. The samecase applies to musicians when it comes to their line of business.They compete with one another in terms of the person who has a bigfan base. This means that they will continuously compete for famethat can only be achieved if the musician is able to connect with theaudience in a successful a business, the audience is thecustomer or an employee in an HR department. It should be noted thata manager cannot be able to retain the best and the most talentedemployees in the company if there is no connection between theemployees and the company management. This implies that theunderlying principle is to consider the key stakeholder in everysituation and then connecting with them.

Theother area that the two correlates is in the handling of the change.The two operate in an environment where change is something that theyhave to deal with on a daily basis. Both a musician and a managerhave to adopt changes in order to be successful in his or her day today activities. The other area is on improvisation. Just as the musickeeps on changing as time moves on, the same also happens in businesswith most of the things keep on changing as business and the businessenvironment keeps on transforming. Change is something that businessand music have to deal with if success is one of its objectives. Whenit comes to the concept of producers in music, they are analogous tomanagers in business. A producer is the one who guides the musicianto success through the production of the music in a way that fulfillsthe needs and wishes of the audience. The success of the musicianlargely depends on this. Turning to business, the manager offersguidance to the employees in order to enable them to do their tasksto perfection. The manager can have a very influential when it comesto the success of the company and that of the employees. This isbecause he or she is the one responsible for the creation of policieswithin the business. These policies are the ones followed by theemployees in the company. This shows that the roles of the managersand that of producers are the same.

Theconcepts of creativity are also one of the ways that the twocorrelate. For a business to be successful, the manager or themarketing team has to come up with the best strategies that canpropel the company to the next level in terms of sales. This meansthat they have to apply creativity in order to come up with ads andadverts that can be used to attract more and more customers to thebusiness. This is the same case where the musician has to thinkoutside the box in order to continue producing new songs that impressthe audience. Innovation is key to the success of both business andmusic.

Justlike the way music requires one to have the basic aspects in order tobe successful, the case is the same in the business. Different modelshave been used in both cases, and despite being different, each hasits own defined ways to excel. Moreover, just like in music, one mustproduce results, and do it in a consistent manner. Results matters inboth cases, and not only results, but good results. In both music andbusiness, one is required to invest his/her time and improve skillsin order to excel, and the personal/audience negativity should not beconsidered at all. Finally, in both music and business, one mustattract the right type of people, and in order to excel as a businessperson, one must connect to his/her audience just like in a musicalband.

Inconclusion, music and business correlates in many ways as theanalysis above illustrate. It is clear that everything that abusiness has correlates with something in the music. It was clearthat innovation and creativity are some of the two main things thatshow the correlation. A business has to include creativity andinnovation in all its operations. On the same note, music is allabout innovation and creativity that keeps the musicians producingwhat they keep on producing for the sake of the listeners just likethe business does for the sake of the consumers. In a nutshell, it’sclear to say that, despite different contents in both cases ‘musicand business, excellent performance is essential for one to besuccessful.


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LiteraryAnalysis “ThePossibility Of Evil

Publishedin 1965, ‘ThePossibility Of Evil’is a short story authored by Shirley Jackson his writings whichcontain numerous elements that are seen through his writing, and thebook was recognized when the book was rewarded in 1966 for being thebest mystery short story winning the Edgar Allan Poe Award (Jackson68).Despite the book not recognized like her other published book ‘TheLottery’,ThePossibility of Evilhas been reckoned and has been used sometimes as set work in highschools. Through its character and plot development, the short storyexcellently developed its theme through the study into the nature ofappearance compared to the reality. This paper provides a literalanalysis of the short story by Shirley ‘ThePossibility of Evil’.

Thesisstatement: Strangeworthportrayal in the story ‘the possibility of evil depends mainly onthe use of literal tools. Shehas two-faced temperaments concealed by her tidy outward she isknown for saying kind things to people, but thinks and writes theopposite.

Inthe short story, by Shirley Jackson ‘ThePossibility of Evil’Strangeworth Adela (the main character in the story) believes in theaspect of having outward and inward social values. Outwardly Adelabehaves in a different way, however, inwardly she is holdingcompletely contrasting thoughts. According to the plot, Ms.Strangeworth is described as an old lady who is harmless at thebeginning of the story. However, through her numerous conversationswith other people in the town she lives, it’s clear that shebelieves she owns it, and in turn she developed a great interest withthe town people. Moreover, Ms. Strangeworth admires the orderlinessin her house. Centrally to what we are made to believe Ms.Strangeworth is, she isn’t a quiet figure in the town (Parks320).She has written letters to her neighbor based on rumors she gets fromother people during her daily walks in the town. The story examinesdifferent themes such as two-facedness being the main one inaddition the story has used literal devices such as symbolism, plot,point of view, and character.

Theauthor ‘Shirley’ masterfully utilizes different literacy devicesto illustrate the plight of Ms. Strangeworth in the story ‘ThePossibility of Evil.’Some of the devices used include, imagery, conflict, point of view,irony, symbolism, and also foreshadowing.

Oneof the key and essential literal devices that are used by the authoris a thirdperson point of view.The author has used Ms. Strangeworth as the protagonist and the storyis given from her point of view (as the reader, we can only see intothe thoughts of Ms. Strangeworth and not from anyone else). The storyis narrated from the Ms. Strangeworth point of view, and the authorshave excellently developed the theme around the character of MissStrangeworth. Her point of view is used to drive the main themebehind the story of conflict between man and society as well as manV.s man. According to the story, Miss Strangeworth thinks she isperfect and should be an example of how people should live. However,centrally to her initial image, as the story develops, she is theevil one, as she sends evil letters to her neighbors. The story isnarrated in the third person (she), and the author has narrated thestory from and outside of the story point of view. According to thestory, the story portrays the protagonist (Ms. Strangeworth)characters as an old lady living in a town, and thinks she owns it.She takes to her initiative to prevent evil in the town, but she isthe basis of all the evils (Duval,Paul and MacDonald nd).

Anotherliterary device used by the author is symbolism and imagery. Thesymbolism of roses is used in the story. Roses signify the maincharacter herself. Just like the roses are, pretty petals, Ms.Strangeworth has appeared to other person as friendly andapproachable, who is driven by wellbeing of the society. Just likeroses, have tiny sharp thorns, it shows that Ms. Strangeworth has hissharp and bad side as well. The roses are symbolically disclosed whoexactly is Ms. Adela and her worth to the community, in addition tothe destroyed reputation in her town. Another incident that uses thesymbolism literacy device is when Ms. Strangeworth accidentally dropsher letters and one of them drops from her. This symbolizes herdownfall as people in her town come to realize she is the one who hasbeen behind the mysterious letters. Another symbolism of rose is whenshe receives a letter addressed to her telling her that her roseshave been cut down. At this point, the roses signify her dignity andpride, and when the roses were cut down so does her pride anddignity. Other symbols within the story include the letters sent byMs. Strangeworth represents evil, letter sent back to her signifiesno more evil, the use blue paper also means no more evil (Duval,Paul and MacDonald nd).

Thirdly,there is the use irony in the story. Irony is the key idea in thestory as it’s displayed when Ms. Strangeworth attempts to stop theevils in her town as she thinks she is perfect, but as the storydevelops and as she continues to fight the evil, she is the onecreating it (evil) herself. It becomes more ironical as she doesn’trealize she is doing more evil in her town than good, as she thinksshe is the only one free from evil in the entire town, and it’s herduty to stop it. The use of irony has helped bring out the story’smain theme of conflict. Ms., Strangeworth vies herself as the onlyguardian of the town by eliminating evil through sending anonymousletters, while it’s true she is the one creating it. The mistakecomes when a letter drops from her, and the result is that, the wholetown realizes she is the one behind the poison pen letters, thislooks to support the saying, ‘what’sgoes around comes around’.The author has used both verbal and situational irony (Duval,Paul and MacDonald nd).

Finally,the author has used foreshadowing in her story, making it moreinteresting to read as well as delivering the intended theme.Foreshadowing is the aspect of giving hints which indicate somethingwill happen at a later stage in the story. In the story, ‘thepossibility of evil’, the author has used foreshadowing indifferent scenarios. For example, when Ms. Cried silently due to thewickedness in her town, when she read “look at what used to beyour roses”. This action foreshadows that someone ruined her roses.When one of her letter falls for her and delivered to the intendedperson, it foreshowed that the letter will eventually reach to theintended recipient which would signal the exposure of his secret. Another example of foreshadowing is when the author writes that, Ms.Strangeworth was not at any one point concerned with facts whendrawing her letters, but she just depended on rumors and suspicionideas. This foreshadows that, Strangeworth is nosy and alwaysthinking about other people’s business. The use of foreshadowing bythe author has made the story better as it helps pull the readerdeeper into the story as it creates more suspense and in turn thereader wants to read more and more of the story. In addition to theabove discussed literal devices as used in the story, there areothers which have been used by the author. These include aspects suchas figurative language, setting, and character (Duval,Paul and MacDonald nd).

Inconclusion, ‘Shehas two-faced temperaments concealed by her tidy outward she isknown for saying kind things to people, but thinks and writes theopposite’ has been the climax of the story, and as the author hasexpertly used the literary devices to bring out the intended messageto the reader, the theme of the story has been well exposed. Throughthe use of irony, it’s clear that, Ms. Strangeworht isn’t notwhat people in her town think she is. Her outside is masking her evilinside. The use of imagery, on the other hand has been used torepresent both her inside world and her outside, and finally,foreshadowing exposes her downfall as people come to know who Ms.Strangeworth really is.


Duval,Paul, and J E. H. MacDonald.&nbspTheTangled Garden.Scarborough, Ont: Cerebrus/Prentice-Hall, 1978. Print.

Parks,John G. &quotThe Possibility of Evil: A Key to Shirley Jackson`sFiction.&quot&nbspStudiesIn Short Fiction&nbsp15.3(1978): 320.&nbspAcademicSearch Premier.Web. 19 Apr. 2015.

Jackson,Shirley. &quotThe Possibility Of Evil.&quot&nbspSaturdayEvening Post&nbsp238.25(1965): 61-69.&nbspAcademicSearch Premier.Web. 19 Apr. 2015.