Part I

10

Dash, Dipak K. States with bigger urban population to have more smartcities. The Times of India, 24 Feb. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.&lt http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/States-with-bigger-urban-population-to-have- more-smart-cities/articleshow/46350335.cms&gt

Dash highlights the issue of an increasing urban population in mostof the cities, which has necessitated the construction of smartcities. The Indian states that have the highest urban population are,Maharashtra having a 5.1 core occupants, Utar Pradesh with a 4.5 corefigure of persons in the city, Tamil Nadu rates third with thehighest figure of urban civilians at 3.5 core, and New Delhicomprises of 1.6 core city occupants. The article further notes thatan increasing urban population poses challenges to cityinfrastructure, information technology solution as well as provisionof services.

Shukla, Neha. Invisible pollutants make air more harmful than ever.The Times of India, 21 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. &lthttp://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/lucknow/Invisible- pollutants-make-air-more-harmful-than-ever/articleshow/46993620.cms&gt

Shukla evaluates the environmental issue of air pollution. It isapparent that air pollution is an ever-increasing challenge for thenation. Owing to the increasing number of vehicles on the roads everyyear, the release of carbon monoxide to the environment progresses toenhance. Even the initiative of creating new car models to reduce airpollution have not provided a solution to air pollution, as thefour-stroke engines discharge nano-particle to the environment, whichpermeate cell walls, travel to lungs and arteries resulting inlife-threatening pulmonary diseases. Other contributing airpollutants involve the burning of fossil fuels and the re-suspendingof street dust.

Singh, Vijay V. 4 lakh houses needed by 2034 but prices may not fall.The Times of India, 15 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. &lthttp://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/4-lakh- houses-needed-by-2034-but-prices-may-not-fall/articleshow/46927224.cms&gt

According to Singh, research depicts that the population for thecity of Mumbai will increase by 16 lakh in the coming two decades.This will mean a need for 4 lakh homes to meet the accommodationneeds that come with the population increase. However, there has beena rapid increase in Indian urban population, and the cities are full.In coming years, it will not be possible to construct affordablehomes because the lack of space causes real estate prices toincrease. The article highlights the increasing Indian population,especially in towns, and its aftermath in lowering living standards.The inability to afford a house lowers living standards.

The Times of India. Delhi has to act on pollution: PrakashJavadekar, 1 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. &lthttp://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/Delhi-has-to-act-on-pollution- Prakash-Javadekar/articleshow/46764633.cms&gt

The article criticizes the slow move by the Delhi administration inacting towards the minimization of pollution. Pollution is a majorenvironmental issue affecting the city. This is apparent throughwidespread air pollution, poor treatment of sewages as well as poorsupervision of solid waste. Some of the main issues given prominenceinclude finding a solution to the increasing vehicle population,which is a major contributor towards air pollution. The other ispollution deriving from stubble burning that happens in the Rabi andKharif harvest seasons. The article notes that these are issues thatrequire a stringent action plan for them to be solved effectively.

The Times of India. By 2050, India to surpass Indonesia willhave largest Muslim population: Study, 3 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr.2015. &lthttp://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/By- 2050-India-to-surpass-Indonesia-will-have-largest-Muslim-population- Study/articleshow/46790174.cms&gt

The population of India is anticipated to largely comprise ofMuslims by 2050. Research projects that the Muslim population willincrease faster than it has been in former years. In specific, Indiapresents the country that will experience most of the populationincrease becoming the mostly populated Muslim society in comingdecades. The number of Hindu population is also likely to increase.The country will maintain high Hindu majority population while at thesame time has the biggest population of Muslims when compared toother nations in the world.

The Times of India. India builds first smart city as urbanpopulation swells. 15 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. &lthttp://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/India-builds-first-smart-city-as- urban-population-swells/articleshow/46928318.cms&gt

The article notes that India’s urban population is increasing.More and more people are moving to and settling in urban centers. Theurban population will increase by above 400 million individuals toreach 814 million as at 2050. It is apparent that India is facing anurban population crisis. The problem is that many of India’s urbantowns have not been planned in manners that make it possible toaccommodate the massive number of people. The government is workingtowards improving the situation through construction of smart cities.Skeptics argue that even with the construction of smart cities, thecountry will not be able to solve the problem of an increasing urbanpopulation.

I

The recent issues covered in the articles are on population and theenvironment. These issues are an illustration of the generalprocedure of globalization in India. There are numerous mannersthrough which globalization affects the population. The increasewidespread of public wellbeing as well as contraceptive technologyhas enhanced the number of years people live. At the same time, ithas resulted in reduced fertility to most global regions. However,worldwide movements and migration have been contributors towardsinternational illnesses outbreaks. The cases have been differentdepending on the nation. In some countries, the outcome ofglobalization has been largely negative. An illustration is India,where globalization is linked to an increased urban population andair pollution. In the country, most of the population prefers stayingin industrialized urban regions contrary to traditional ruralsettings.

The process of globalization results in industrialization, which ischaracterized by the building of industries and creation of businessopportunities. Many of these industries and businesses are situatedin urban regions. In the search for work in industrialized centers,most people move to urban regions. In the end, the population forpersons in urban regions increases. The problem is that life in urbanareas is not always as anticipated. The inability to get well payingjobs and afford the expensive life results in the creation of slumsettlement within cities. Most of these slum settlements are occupiedby persons that work as manual laborers in factories, earning lowincomes hence, unable to afford decent housing. The challenge forIndia is that globalization has resulted in massive populationincrease in urban centers, to the extreme that there is no longerspace to build more houses to accommodate the increasing population.

Globalization has resulted in the invention of new technologies likecar manufacturing and road construction. An illustration is theinvention of the four-stroke engine vehicle, which are said to resultin minimal air pollution when compared to other vehicles. However,none of the gases released to the environment by these vehicles issafe. Air pollution is another challenge for India. The number ofcars on the roads has increased and is projected to continue toincrease in coming years. Such an increase means that more harmfulgases like carbon monoxide become released into the environment,resulting in air pollution. The mere advantage of engine vehicle isthat they save on fuel expenses. However, when it comes to airpollution, they release “respiratory suspended particulate matter”.These are small particles, capable of easily passing through the cellwalls. They move to arteries and lungs. In turn, might eventuallyresult in life-threatening pulmonary diseases. Factories are alsoanother major source of air pollution as they release manufacturinggases to the environment.

In conclusion, pollution as an environmental issue and populationincrease are illustrative of the overall procedure of globalization.As the country develops in terms of building, urban centers morepeople move to cities causing a population crisis in towns. More carownership and factories means more release of harmful gases to theenvironment.

Thanh Nien News. Study finds large dioxin emissions fromVietnam’s waste treatment plants. 9 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.&lthttp://www.thanhniennews.com/health/study-finds- large-dioxin-emissions-from-vietnams-waste-treatment-plants-40949.html&gt

The article discusses the dangerous discharge of dioxin. It isapparent that most of the incinerators, which are involved in theburning of waste, have been releasing perilous dioxin, which exceedsthe safe restriction. Dioxin is harmful to the environment and inturn harms human beings. It causes cancer, which is inherited amonggenerations when inhaled or indirectly consumed. When released to theenvironment, like soil it traces its way to water sources and farms.Individuals then consume the water and feed on crops that have beenintoxicated causing lasting harm to their bodies. This means that theincrease release of dioxin results in water and soil pollution.

Thanh Nien News. Deforestation in Vietnam is condoned byauthorities: official. 11 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. &lthttp://www.thanhniennews.com/society/deforestation-in-vietnam- is-condoned-by-authorities-official-40984.html&gt

Deforestation is a major cause of climate change, yet the Vietnamgovernment has not taken any stringent measures in avoiding thewidespread behavior. The article notes that authorities eithertolerate or overlook deforestation. The article further notes that60% of forest area that has been destroyed has been consented byauthorities. When government allows people to cut down trees with theobjective of developing industrial zones, irrigation or hydropowerplants, then it is out rightly supporting deforestation. This poses amajor risk of desertification, with just a small percentage of forestcover left in the country. Eventually the country will begin toexperience climatic changes that are impossible to control.

Thanh Nien News. Many Vietnam’s cities will be submerged dueto climate change: official. 14 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. &lthttp://www.thanhniennews.com/society/many- vietnams-cities-will-be-submerged-due-to-climate-change-official-40802.html&gt

The article evaluates the issue of climate change already happeningand having adverse effects in Vietnam. It is apparent that whilecivilians from the central highlands as well as close provincesexperience the most horrible famine, others in Ho Chi Minh town areexperiencing heavy rainfall resulting in flooding. One groupstruggles to get water for drinking and their plants and animals diebecause of drought, yet the other drowns from heavy downpour. Thissignifies the adverse effects of climate change. The article warnsthat such harsh weather conditions are anticipated to increase. Thedamage has already been felt having previously led to the deaths of9,500 individuals.

Thuy Vi. Plastic bag pollution continues unabated in Vietnam. ThanhNien News, 18 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. &lthttp://www.thanhniennews.com/society/plastic-bag-pollution- continues-unabated-in-vietnam-41110.html&gt

Thuy Vi introduces the environmental issue of plastic bags, whichresult in soil, water and land pollution. It is apparent that peoplecarrying goods in plastic bags is a common phenomenon in Vietnam.Research demonstrates that each Vietnam family employs a mean of morethan a kilogram of plastic bags on a monthly basis. People haverapidly shifted from traditional methods of carrying shopping, likecarrying a bowl to the store when purchasing a loaf of bread, to thewidespread use of plastic bags. Although convenient to use, they posemajor risks to the environment. Thuy Vi notes that the plastic bagsare just used once, for a few minutes, and discarded. Consideringthat, it takes a millennium for the bags to degrade, then they are amajor cause of pollution in Vietnam.

Thanh Tam –Ha An. Recycling batteries provides livelihoods,snatches lives in northern Vietnam. Thanh Nian News, 15 Apr.2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. &lt http://www.thanhniennews.com/society/recycling-batteries-provides-livelihoods- snatches-lives-in-northern-vietnam-41149.html&gt

Thanh Tam notes that while families are able to meet their basicneeds through working in battery recycling industries, they continueto expose themselves to lead poisoning. Lead poisoning is deadly andexposure to lead also causes cancer. Such recycling trends expose thecountry’s lacking recycling infrastructure. Many industries aremore concerned about what they manufacture, but disregard theimportant of recycling their products once discarded by consumers.The result is widespread environmental pollution, as illustrated inthe amount of lead exposure apparent in the few recycling plants. Theemployees have been found to carry the lead bars immersed in acid tostreams where they wash them, resulting in pollution of drinkingwater resources. In other instances, lead is buried in the ground,causing soil pollution.

Thanh Nien News. Picture imperfect: Photo contest shows bleakclimate future for Vietnam. 7 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. &lthttp://www.thanhniennews.com/society/picture- imperfect-photo-contest-shows-bleak-climate-future-for-vietnam-40795.html&gt

The article presents pictures that were part of a photographycontest showing the alarming prospect climate for Vietnam. From thephotographs, it is possible to understand the extreme changeshappening to Vietnam environment and the dangers they pose forcivilians. These include the Ca Bon Canal that is filled with waste,a bus struggling to drive on flooded roads in Hanol, a forest thathas been burned down, drying streams, cracked soil and childrenplaying in a pond containing muddy water. What these imagescommunicate is that Vietman’s environment in the coming years willexperience extreme climate changes, which will makes it almostimpossible to sustain human existence, unless measures are taken toreduce such harm to the environment.

I

The issues covered in the article focus on environmental pollutionin Vietnam. The issues are an illustration of the general procedureof globalization. There is a relationship between globalization andenvironmental pollution. Globalization is attributed to the adoptionof new technologies like using plastic bags. In one of the articles,it is apparent that prior to plastic bags, civilians were used tocarrying their own bowls when going to purchase foodstuffs. However,the introduction of plastic bags has resulted in their widespreaduse. People now prefer them to paper bag or other recyclables thatcan be used to carry shopping. As more people continue to use them,the negative effect to the environment progresses to be high.

The emergence of manufacturing factories is as well an outcome ofglobalization. Most of the factories create products that containlead. The problem is that there have not been any effectivestrategies on how to recycle lead products. As a result, it isreleased to the environment when buried or washed in streams. Theresult is that civilians are exposed to lead exposure. Factoriesought to be held accountable for such environmental pollution, whichcan merely happen by the government implementing stringent laws. Inthe wake of widespread agriculture following globalization, Vietnamresorted to cutting down trees to allow the developing of irrigationplants among other developments, in turn resulting in the loss offorest cover. Forests are important in regulating climate change,which is currently a major problem in Vietnam. This means that as thecountry moved with the wave of globalization, it is costing thecountry’s safe environmental conditions.

The positive impacts of globalization cannot be refuted, such asemerging technologies that support proper recycling of wasteproducts. Although Vietnam may has suffered the negative outcomes ofsome globalization aspects, the country can still borrow fromemerging technologies and preserve the environment. Proper wasterecycling will curb the exposure of harmful products like dioxin andlead to the environment. The country can also depend on emergingtechnologies and those that have been successful in other nations toplant trees and restore its forest cover. Forests in turn draw rainsolving the problem of drought. They also hold soil together to stopflooding.

In conclusion, environmental pollution is a major challenge forVietnam. The authorities need to impose strict laws againstcontributors like cutting down trees, factories releasing waste tothe environment and use of plastic bags.