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Zombiesare believed to be living dead creatures that have a hunger for humanflesh, especially the brain. These creatures are said to have comeback from the dead and they cannot even remember anything beyond thembeing zombies. This means that they cannot recall anything thathappened in their life before they died and became zombies. There arethose who believe that indeed zombies exist while others take it aspure fiction meant to instill fear in people.

Theidea of zombies is not American and it is believed to have come fromthe Haitian culture. It is believed that it is the work of magic andwitchcraft that makes someone a zombie. A voodoo, who is a Haitianmagician, is responsible for turning the person into a zombie. Theperson is then under the complete control of the one who made him azombie. The voodoo does this is by trapping the soul of a person in abottle and not unless God rescues that soul, he or she remains azombie controlled by the voodoo.

Inthe Haitian culture, it is believed that zombies were once slaves whoworked on people’s farms and plantations. It is seen as a form ofpunishment for the slaves after their death. There are times when theslaves felt like committing suicide to escape the punishment thatthey went through, but the thought of them being transformed intozombies made them shun the idea of committing suicide.

InHaiti, it was believed that bokors who were voodoo priests had thepower of resurrecting the dead by administering a certain powder withtetrodoxin that is a deadly substance. The zombie was usually aperson who had angered his family and the family members felt thatthey could not live with the person anymore. Such a family orcommunity, then hired a bokor to turn the person into a zombie.

Thebokor could then administer the powder and the heartbeat of such aperson could slow down to the point of almost stopping. The personwould appear dead and their temperature would decrease. The peoplewould think that the person is dead and they would then bury him orher like a dead person. The bokor would then exhume the person whilestill alive. Such a person would still be intact physically, buttheir memory would be lost due to the effect of the drug. He or shewould then remain under the control of the voodoo until the voodoodies.

Zombiesare said to be senseless creature that do not talk but just groan.Their appetite for human blood is great and once they spot a victim,they do not stop. They do not feel any pain and have no emotions andit is said that they do not feel pain when parts of their bodies arechopped off. Even after losing their limbs, zombies will stillattack. It is believed that every person who is killed by a zombiealso becomes a zombie.

Thereis the scientific explanation of this phenomenon by Wade Davis.According to Davis, one can transform someone into a zombie byinjecting a certain poisonous powder into their system. The powderhas the effect of leaving someone defenseless, not able to talk norunderstand themselves. To the victim, it is like coming back from thedead.

In1980, Clairvius Narcisse appeared in a rural village in Haiti. Heclaimed that he had died in Albert Schweitzer Hospital on May 2,1962. According to him, he was paralyzed during his alleged death andhe could even recall seeing the doctor covering him with a whitesheet. He stated that it is bokor who resurrected him and made him azombie. He answered all the questions about his childhood and familyand this made people to believe that he was actually a zombie who hadcome back to life. This account is what motivated scientists likeWade Davis to research and know what really makes a person to becomea zombie.

Zombieshave no independent thoughts, nor the free will, even though theyhave human bodies. They are under the complete control of an evildoerand theirs is just to follow orders from their controller.

Zombieshave starred in movies, books, TV shows and legends. Their existencehas frightened people who have watched the movies or read books aboutthem. In these works, they are shown as creatures coming out of thegrave to look for human flesh. They are so determined and do not stopuntil they get hold of human flesh.

Zombiesare mainly used as slaves, according to the folklore as they providecheap labor. They are used to work on the plantations, as they do notrequire any pay from their masters. These zombies do not get tiredand they cannot inflict harm unless they become aware of theirexistence.

Accordingto the Haitian folklore, there are several ways one can destroy azombie. One can choose to either shoot the zombie on the head ordecapitate the zombie. However, the goal is never to kill the zombie,but to free the zombie from their state.

Oneof the ways to do this is by feeding the zombie salt. Once a zombieeats salt, it becomes conscious of their abnormal existence. Once itbecomes aware of this, the likelihood is that the zombie will not goback to its master. Another belief is that once the zombie sees anocean, it will return to its former state. At this point, it will getangry and try to return to the grave.

Zombieshave penetrated the pop culture to a great extent. Movies like ‘nightof the living dead’ are so popular for using this phenomenon. Tosome, zombies are real and to others they do not exist. Those who donot believe in their existence dispute the theory about zombies. EvenWade Davis’ account has also been disputed. Fellow scientistsbelieve that his powder theory cannot work as too much of the drugwould kill the person, whereas too little of it would not have anyeffect.

TheHaitian account is also disputed. The zombies are said to work on theplantations and provide cheap labor. This raises doubt as the countryof Haiti has readily available labor, as it is a low-income country.It therefore suffices that there would be no need of making someone azombie to provide labor in the sugarcane plantations, whereas one canstill find human beings to do the work. There is no scientificevidence that supports their existence to provide any basis of makingconclusions about them. Zombies are just creations of fiction meantfor the literal world. However, there is an ongoing study andresearch to prove whether this is true or just fiction as it standstoday.


Dziemianowicz,Stefan. &quotMight Of The Living Dead.&quot&nbspPublishersWeekly&nbsp256.28(2009): 20- 24.AcademicSearch Premier.Web. 1 May 2015.

Hamilton,Sue L. Zombies. Edina, Minn.: ABDO Pub., 2010. Print.

&quotHistoryof Zombies.&quot Great Discoveries in Archaeology. 25 Apr. 2013.Web. 1 May 2015.

Wilson,Tracy. &quotHow Zombies Work.&quot Web. 1 May 2015.

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Childdevelopment is the assessment of the biological, emotional, socialand physical changes that take place in the stages between birth tothe end of adolescence. It is a study of the processes that takeplace from the stage when a human being is dependent on those aroundhim to the stage where someone can rely on themselves. Theenvironment in which a child grows up will determine to a greatextent how that child will turn out. Through the study of childdevelopment, every person who interacts with a child will know how tohandle the child at whatever stage they are in, knowing well thatthis will have an influence on the child.

Childrenbehave differently at different ages. It is important that one knowswhat to expect when a child is at a certain age. For children agedbetween 6 to 9 years, there is a lot of confidence in whatever theydo. They are not afraid of responding to issues in the environment.Children in this age bracket may fall out but are quick to mend thehurt and become friends again. For most of the children, there isthat one friend whom they associate with more often and they doalmost everything together.

Anotherobservation for children in this age bracket is that there is lesslikelihood of both genders interacting with each other freely. Duringthis age, the physical growth of the children is lower than in theprevious ages. As they grow older past the age of 9 years, thesechildren change and start interacting more with those of a differentgender. The environment that a child grows has a great influence onwhat they become in future. Also the people that they interact withwill have a permanent attachment to them. it is for this reason thatit is important for one to nurture children to grow into responsibleadults.

Asthe children grow older, they learn to take up responsibilities. Theycan solve problems in their environment. They begin to develop keeninterests in hobbies and things they are good at. At this stage, youwill notice that a child doing certain things like playing chess oranother sport. Children at this stage also feel grown up. However,they can be very childish and it is thus important that one learnshow to handle them and deal with their emotions at this stage. Thismainly occurs at the age of 12 for most children when they get to theadolescent stage.

Bythe time the child is sixteen years they are young adults and arehighly skilled in whatever they chose to do. They tend to enjoy thecompany of friends more than they enjoy the company of familymembers. At this point, they begin to develop their identity amongother children. Children at this age also tend to have mood swingsand may even feel anxious at times. If one is to help children at allage groups, there is the need to understand the sequence of theirdevelopment (Child Development Principles and Theories 67).

Everychild is unique in his or her own way and this study helps theinterested party to learn how to handle children. Children differ intheir cognitive, social, physical and emotional growth patterns.Their responses to different factors in the environment are alsodifferent. This paper will look at the areas of the physical,cognitive, social, as well as emotional development of the child.


Thisrefers to the physical changes that can be seen in a child. Thishappens in a stable and predictable sequence. It is about the changesin size, height and weight of the child. It also encompasses theskills that a child will take up that involve the use of theirbodies. Often you will hear someone commenting that a child hasreally grown and the reason for making such a comment is because thechange can be seen in the physical. Some of the activities to expectat this stage include: walking, running and writing.

Thereare two main categories of skills that the child can take part in atdifferent stages:

  1. Gross motor development- this involves the advancement of skills using large muscles in the arms and legs. Activities in this category include: bike riding, running and skipping.

  2. Fine motor development- this involves the use of hands and fingers muscles i.e. the small muscles, to do certain skills such as holding, cutting and grasping.

Oneof the early proponents of the theory of maturation or physicaldevelopment was Arnold Gesell who identified the role of nature ingrowth. He led the debate on which of the two factors betweenbiological heritage i.e. nature and environmental factors i.e.nurture, has a greater influence on the development of a child.

Thereare those aspects like the color of the eyes and the age at which achild begins talking that are determined by hereditary factors andthere are those that are nurtured through interaction with people orother environmental factors.


Thisis also called intellectual development and it is about the processesthat people use to gain knowledge. Theorists like Piagnet, Skinnerand Vygotsky have explained this form of development. According toJean Piagnet, the thinking of children goes through four phases andthrough each phase, the thinking changes qualitatively. This theoryis still used today to explain the different stages of development ina child’s thinking. These stages are:

  • Sensory-motor stage- this is the stage from birth to two years. Children at this stage use their senses and motor skills to explore and understand their world.

  • Pre-operational stage- this stage is between 2 and 7 years. Children at this stage rely on their senses less. It is characterized by the inability to conserve.

  • Concrete operations stage- children at this stage are aged between 7-12 years. They are more logical in the way they think and can make concrete decisions using materials available to them. For example, they will use counters to solve mathematical problems.

  • Formal operations- this is the stage beyond the age of 12 years where, according to Piagnet, children can handle more complex issues. At this stage, children can think logically and respond to any issues after careful assessment.

Socialand Emotional Development

Thisis the aspect of development that is associated with a child’s selfimage and identity. It is the assessment of how the child’sdevelops feelings about him or herself and how a child is able todevelop relationships with other people in the society.

Thesocial and emotional development theory teaches on the importance oflearning to interact with one’s family and society. This aspect islearned through socialization where a child first begins withinteracting with the family members in the early years and later goeson to interact with other members of the society. Throughsocialization, children learn how they should interact with otheradults apart from family members, how to interact with their friends,as well as the rules in the society (Ferguson,Kim T., et al 438).

UriBronfenbrenner contributed greatly in the advancement of this theory.He laid emphasis on the interaction between nature and nurture in thedevelopment of a child. He explains his theory in kind of a circlewith four sections where each section has a part to play in thedevelopment of the child. The first and innermost section is themicro system. This system involves the family that the child isgrowing up in and its immediate surroundings. This is followed bymesosystem that describes the broader surroundings like thepre-school environment that have an influence on the child. Forexample, the teacher who takes the child through pre-school has agreat influence on the child.

Thethird section is the exosystem. This section describes a broadercircle of people like the parent’s workmates, and support networksthat influence the child. The fourth section is the macro system thatinvolves the customs, values and attitudes of the society that thechild grows up in.

LevVygotsky also contributed greatly in the advancement of this theory.He stated that children’s cognitive development was influencedgreatly by the people that the child interacts with more often. It isthus important that children interacts more with knowledgeable adultsand peers. He further stated that children are able to internalizefeelings, ideas and emotions and these aspects take long before theygo off the mind of the child.

AlbertBandura another social development theorist also emphasized on therole that the environment plays in the development of the child. Heexplained this by stating that children are good at imitating whatthey see in their surroundings. By doing this, the child is able tolearn how the society in which they live in operates. A child willthen behave the same way that the people in the society in which heor she has grown up in behaves even when they are adults.


Allthe three aspects discussed above help to explain how a childdevelops and what makes them to turn out the way they do. There arethose aspects for example the physical development aspect that theenvironment lacks a great influence, but there are others like thesocial and emotional development aspect that the environment plays agreat role.

Thequality of parenting that a child gets is closely linked to theability of a child to have a personal identity. According toresearch, most of the young people who carry out serious crimes oreven harm themselves have had bad experiences as children. Thosechildren usually have a very poor self-concept. This is the reason itis important that a parent or guardian ensure that a child getsexposed to the right environment with the right people. Theexperiences that a child has also have a great influence on theirintellectual capability as discussed. The reason for this is that ahuman being is able to interpret things that they have been toldabout. Through the study of child development, one will be able tolearn the various stages of a child’s development. This isnecessary as one can then understand certain things that a child doesand be able to deal with a child at various stages in life.


&quotChildDevelopment Principles and Theories.&quot Web. 28 Apr. 2015.

Ferguson,Kim T., et al. &quotThe Physical Environment And Child Development:An International Review.&quot&nbspInternationalJournal Of Psychology&nbsp48.4(2013): 437- 468.&nbspBusinessSource Complete.Web. 28 Apr. 2015

Tassoni,Penny. Child Development: 6 to 16 Years. Oxford: Heinemann, 2007.Print.