InformalComments and Insights on Ten Movies

TheVirtual Life of Film (Dogville)

Therehave been various significant changes in media technology which haveand continue to influence the sphere of media studies. Rodowick&amp Rodowick (9) hold that the most notable that have been witnessed in the industryinclude the sheer disappearance of film, extinction of the film,which was replaced with the digital image (in the digital era) thatis the disappearance of the celluloid film stock and the growth of anew media in competition for audience (Rodowick&amp Rodowick 15).Additionally, there have been significant changes in the aestheticand historical implication of the film industry. The aftermath of thedigital era saw the death of film in many years ago.

Thesocial and cultural experiences have been shaped by television,video, computer, as well as computer networks. For instance, the filmindustry has been perceived to be a hybrid medium. This is attributedto the fact that it features no single leading component.Furthermore, it can literally never be reduced to a single andsignificant essence. Furthermore, the essence of photography inrelation to its historical and aesthetical implications has also beencompromised in the digital era. Photography is quite essential sinceit reminds us the past and offers us the opportunity to look at theworld and at the same time perceive the world at a distance. Theconcept of a moving image of skepticism holds that photographydoesn’t represent so much, rather transcribe meaning.

Onseveral occasions, Dogville is deemed promoting a classic left-wingdrama, though strains of right-wing individualism can be traced in itas well. In particular, the trailer attacks common social and moralflaws that are characteristic of Native American films centerbreaking the conventions of American moviemakers. For example, Graceis perceived as a virtual slave, mistreat to the height of rape, withrepayment as an excuse.

&quotMahanagarand Cinematic Imperfection” – Mahanagar

Fora relatively long time in history of film production and filmstudies, significant focus have largely be accorded to women’sissues. In particular, the contradictory consequences of patriarchycoupled with capitalism on the lives of women have be the majorthemes of interest in this disciple. This partial focus has limitedthe imminent critique of all contradictions that exist in the largersociety (Ganguly 24). Therefore, it is necessary for an investigationinto the whole potential and the degree to which its performanceintegrates the audience, reception of material conditions,techniques, as well as characters.

Toa larger extent, film is a unique. (Ganguly 43) argues that as amedium of art, shows as much as it tells. Additionally, itencapsulates as much as it represents. Mahanagar make significantattempts to reintroduce the division of political and committed artin the sphere of media studies. Ray’s film depicts an Indian lifethat incorporates a sense of radical future and demonstrates thepotential of the image to integrate a different world embedded in theremnants of the fading past.

Furthermore,every aspect of modern capitalist life must eventually be seen as adegeneration of life itself. This is also despite improvement of thewoman through employment. For example, in Mahanagar, Arati’sdownfall is a clear indication of a downfall because though shemanages to resist patriarchal obstacles and makes some individualgains, she is still viewed as an ordinary woman who has beencompelled to by circumstances to endure life (Ganguly 47). Moreover,she has to face ignorance of politics in office and make effort toadjust to challenges of being a worker and a house-wise concurrently.

&quotFromThe World in a Frame,&quot and Boxer, &quotWhy are All the CartoonMothers Dead?&quot – The Sound of the Music

Braudyobserved that a great deal of animated films features dead mothers intheir proceedings. In many animated children’s movies, the mothereither dies or she is mysteriously disposed of at the beginning ofthe movie. This trend has elicited questions to why many film makershave intimated this strategy. Nonetheless, the dead-mother strategyhas a long history that stretches back past Bambiand SnowWhite,Charles Perrault’s Sleeping Beauty and Cinderella, and The Sound ofMusic, among other children animated movies of the time.

Forinstance, in the movies, “The Sound of Music,” the Navy captainGeorg Von Trapp loses his wife living him with a bunch of sevenmischievous kid. The captain is often away and while at home, he runshousehold chores like the ship. Therefore, he writes to the conventfor secure a nun to take care of the children. The children showresentment to the hired governess until Maria arrives. It is herkindness, understanding and a great sense of fun that wins thechildren and takes their mother’s position.

However,from my more often than not, the feature of dead mothers in animatedmovies is utilized as time-tested dramatic device that help attractthe attention of its target audience, who often entail youngchildren. Furthermore, Braudy (3) asserts that it is depicts themale-dominated culture of the majority of American screenwriting.This is because even after the mother’s departure, the deceasedalways successfully continue with their life. Furthermore, in most ofthese movies, the dead mother if often replaced by a father whopresumes the vacuum created by the demise. The father do great jobjust as the mother used to do or even better. They tend to perpetuatethat fathers could do better than mothers.

“JeanneDielman: Death in Installments” – Jeanne Dielman

Ackerman’sJeanne Dielman, is quite a complex and provocative piece of art thatcalls for significant attention as far as feminist as well asformalist criticism is concerned. Issues emanating from the moviesraise questions which can be addressed from the traditional theory ofwomen in the home responsible for maintenance of the capitalistsystem, particularly through production and reproduction (Loader 77).In addition, it is deemed shading more light on feminist art andfeminist language in films.

Womenoppression has be an unfortunately common tradition in patriarchalsocieties. This vice can be depicted not only from various othercontemporary movies featuring women but also in a significant numberof women’s novels (Loader 19). For example, when Jean is capturedon the screen peeling a batch of potatoes, the session goesuninterrupted to offer a better view of her oppression. Furthermore,in other instances, she is captured involved in other relativelyinsignificant activities such as interacting with her teenage son,the local shopkeeper, the woman who washes her baby, and her streetneighbors. Only a limited time is spent on the Jeanne’sbreadwinner the clients she attends to as a prostitute.

Thefilm presents an assortment of less significant chores Jeanne busyherself with during the best part of her day. Nonetheless, itpoignantly presents a demo of what housework and housewife roles fora good number of women means. Akerman`s film further provides apowerful illustration of the monotony and the crippling effect of.For example, women tend to establish rules which give their work thesame structure most working people operate within, and resolve tostrictly adhere to them. Nonetheless, Loader (106) observed that themagnitude of these activities tend to throw women off balance.

&quotBlackSpectatorship: Problems of Identification and Resistance – Shaft

Theconcept of “Black Dictatorship” has resulted in the problem ofidentification and resistance with regard to the racialrepresentation of dominant cinema. In particular, Diawara (213)explains that on one hand, a number of African American filmgoershave tended to identify themselves with the images of black people asincorporated in several Hollywood films. On the other hand, as amatter of various reasons, some white spectators have raised eyebrowsagainst the racial representations of the largest share of cinema.Therefore, the film industry has been accused of creating a divisionbetween the two dominant races in the United States, as well as theentire world. For instance, Diawara (216) observed that in everyinstance Blacks are represented in American films, there happen anumber of people who refuse to accept the result and even continue tohold their disbelief for a good duration.

Typically,film production is more often a context-specific process. Theresultant piece of a movie will incorporates the social and culturalattributes of the respective setting. Moreover, race, ethnicity,gender, and sexuality among other cultural and societal aspects arerepresented by characters and their surrounding environment.Therefore, film, among other media, is an instrument through whichculture is displayed and transferred.

Forexample, Gordon Parks’ the Shaft,is a classical example of the hotly contested representation of theBlacks. It centered on the narrative of a private detective, JohnShaft, who perverse Harlem throughout the Italian mob neighborhoodsin an effort to find a daughter to another black mobster. Generally,the movie paints a black against the white to the larger audience.The height of the action saw the turn of events almost culminatinginto a full-blow racial war across the streets of the city.

&quotSpatialSystems in North by Northwest” – North by Northwest

Themesand meaning deduced from media such as films fall under two broadcategories: form-intrinsic and form-extrinsic. In form-extrinsicmeaning and theme, one assumes an outside perspective while lookingoutside the text at different fragments of the director’s reuvre(Murphie 87). On the other hand, form-intrinsic meaning tend to bededuced by assuming a hypothetical relationship between two scenariosin a particular work, especially the beginning and the end. The majorspatial dynamics that come in play during the process relates to themotion of characters within the film world, their motion within theframe of the screen, the movement of the camera, and the movement ofthe editing process form one short to another (Murphie 98).

Northby Northwestentails a narrative of mistaken identity in which an innocent man(Roger Thornhill) is mistaken for (George Kaplan), followedthroughout the United States by hungry service men of an unknownorganization. The organization intends to stop him from getting intotheir way of smuggling out a certain microfilm that contains topgovernment secrets. He is arrested but eventually secures a narrowescape from the gang by a staged driving accident. Unfortunately,neither the authorities nor even his mother could believe hisincidence, a situation that is worsened by a certain woman (localneighbor at Townsend’s residence) who reports that Thornhil gotdrunk after dinner party.

Withinthe film, the various characters are deemed to motion from one“scenotope” to another. In addition, the “scenotopes”attempts to identify every new episodic part with the development ofa different type of concrete space in a relatively radical way.Consequently, the audience may feel a virtual anthology of an entirespectrum of different unique spatial configurations (Murphie 106).The whole range of activities sees the audience deduce meaning andthemes from the media at the end of the process.

&quotFourSeasons of Femininity or four Men in a Woman`s Life” – FatalAttraction

Thepsychoanalytic approach to explaining the concept of femininityestablishes structural boundaries by placing the doll on one side,and the man on the other side. Apollon (101) suggest that femininityis always analyzed as a two-sided issue just like the two sides of asingle coin. On one side is the question, “What particular functiondoes a woman serve in a man’s life with respect to enjoyment thatlanguage makes impossible?” The other side of the question which ismore or less symmetrical to the first one, poses the question, “Whatspecific role does a man play in the life of a woman in relation toenjoyment, upon which language presumes all objects inadequate?”

Inrelation to the subject to enjoyment, the woman is always consideredcomparatively more depended on man than the man is depended on thewoman. For instance, the significant distance between the other andthe subject provides a sure space whereby the signify rest theexcess, which sees opening of desire. This space crates the arenaupon which love finds and develops the words through which the excessby which lovers would undergo suffering. Furthermore, an inadequacyin the structure between the other of the mutual tie and the objectof desire in phantasy may either initiate violence or secure limitsand motivation for transformation (Apollon 113).

Forinstance, in FatalAttraction,Dan tries to explain to Alex later that he must leave, but Alex cutsher wrist in attempt to commit suicide. Therefore, he assist herbandage the afflicted wrists and late leaves. Although Dan thinksthat he is literally done with the incidence, Alex shows up atdifferent places just to have a glimpse of him, makes frequent calls,and finally tells him that she is pregnant. This scenario elaboratesfemininity.

Dyer,&quotEntertainment and Utopia” – Goldiggers of 1933

Dyer(20) utilized the scenario of his musicals to support his argumentthat entertainment functions as s a significant scapegoat forproviding a perception of something more better then what the presentday-to-day fails to offer to the audience. Furthermore, he arguesthat the mainstream entertainment is full of utopian sensibilitieswhich compensate certain limitations in society such as abundance,energy, intensity, transparency and community. The film industry hassignificantly challenged the various utopian conventions ofentertainment.

Forexample, in relation to power, there exist no ‘human power’ infilm characters since their actions are primarily subjected either toexternal forces or by more powerful force within themselves whichthey make effort to control (Dyer 27). Therefore, desperation isalways perceived as a more relevant sensibility rather than energysince the vigorous activities of the characters in film trace theirroots from the characters’ desperate efforts to maintain control.

Inaddition, transparency which implies the quality of relationship thatexists between the presented characters in the film (Dyer 38), isanother utopian sensitivity perpetuated by the entertainment. In mostoccasions, relationships among characters in film areindividual-based there exist no true love and sincerity in them.Moreover, they often exist to fulfill certain end, with charactersplaying the function of a lover or friend in order to attain theirindividual exploitative goals.

Thisbehavior is more consistent with female actors who use the sexualityto manipulate the protagonist for their advantage. For example,Lawrence Bradford and his family lawyer Fanuel Peabody realized whatwas happening with Brad, they immediately travel to New York to savehim from claws of a victim of a certain &quotgold digger&quot.

Elsaesser,&quotClassical/Post-Classical Narrative: Die Hard” – Die Hard

Thereis significant debate about the essence of a distinction betweenclassical and post-classical. However, a common question relates towhether things are still usual there is need to change thevocabulary in film industry in an attempt to accord justice tocontemporary movies that have been produced in Hollywood (Elsaesser&amp Warren 27).Some scholars hold that there is no need to alter one’s approachsince new Hollywood blockbuster is still inclined to stylistic andnarrative principles that have influenced mainstream cinema rightfrom 1920s to 1960s.

Onthe other hand, some hold that there is no need to explain elementsthat have remained the same, rather those that have undergone change,such as studio ownership, marketing tactics, global distributionnetworks, package deal, as well as other factors that have changedHollywood since mid-1970s. Furthermore, new changes like specialeffects, sound design, the roller coaster, Physical sensations oftheme parks, among other things, exemplify the aesthetics of the NewHollywood. Moreover, mainstream center has witnessed new entries likehorror, explicit sexual epics and violent massacres. From anotherangle, some individuals would claim that movies are no longer watchedrather they are experienced. They also add that films provide afantasy space in which the audience can inhabit, as opposed toilluminating reality (Elsaesser&amp Warren 45).

InDie Hard, John McClane comes back to Los Angeles on Christmas Evewith hopes of reconciling with Bonie Bedelia. He joins her at aChristmas party. On their entry to the venue, a Gruber-ledbank-robbers gang burst in and demand bond from the chairman.Fortunately, MacClane timely intervenes, killing the leader and freesthe hostages. The sheer effects, violent attack, superb armory, amongother new aspects qualify a post-classical analysis for this film.

Orange,&quotBroken Contract” – Force Majeur

ForceMajeur, Ruben Ostlund introduces another brand dimension in mediastudies. For instance he turned to YouTube, which he utilized as hisconsistent source of aspiration. For instance, the most recurrentfeedback on most YouTube search of a term involves Rocky Lockridge’sclip, a former outstanding boxer, in which he breaks down at in thecourse of an A &amp E’s Intervention episode (Orange n.d.). Thestrategy resulted in a YouTube avalanche.

Inaddition, Ostlund opted for a distinctive style for the movies whichcapitalized on long takes, stationary cameras, as well as deceptivelyalternate positioning of the characters. In addition, a good numberof the scenes of the film play out (Orange n.d.). For example, thecameras are either aligned to the lower legs of the characters or onthe backs of their heads. As a smart observation, he was not moreinterested in what the characters’ faces communicated, rather whatthe arrangements of the characters’ body in a combined andprovisional setting, communicated.

Nonetheless,the various episodes of the film portray a clear masculine identity,by concentrating on the margins of its rituals which are notcinematic. Similar recurrence of the version can be depicted in thescene when on a holiday where horseplay among male friendsillustrates a clear example of a sexual assault. In another scene, aschoolteacher abusing a student is found by a colleague. The theme ofinvoluntary is also depicted from the scene where two young girlspreen for a laptop camera while in their bedroom. Furthermore,individualism collides with any effort for unity. This can beillustrated by Ebba’s several encounters in the movie.


Apollon,Willy. &quotFour seasons in femininity orfour men in a woman`slife.&quot Topoi12.2 (1993): 101-115.

Braudy,Leo. From The World in a Frame,&quot and Boxer, &quotWhy are Allthe Cartoon Mothers Dead? Braudy

Diawara,Manthia. &quotBlack spectatorship: Problems of identification andresistance.&quot BlackAmerican Cinema(1993): 211-20.

Dyer,Richard. Entertainmentund, 2003.

Elsaesser,Thomas, and Warren Buckland. &quotClassical/Post-Classical Narrative(Die Hard).&quot StudyingContemporary American Film: A Guide to Movie Analysis(2002): 26-80.

Ganguly,Keya. Cinema,emergence, and the films of Satyajit Ray.Univ of California Press, 2010.

Loader,Jane. &quotJeanne Dielman, Death in Installments.&quot JumpCut16 (1977).

Michelle,Orange. In ForceMajeureRuben Östlund once again scrutinizes what happens when bad behaviordisrupts the accepted order.

Murphie,Andrew. &quotI`m Not Joking-Lacanian Nostalgia Ain`t What It Used ToBe: On Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Lacan (But WereAfraid to Ask Hitchcock), edited by Slavoj Žižek.&quotFilm-Philosophy2.1 (1998).

Rodowick,David Norman, and David Norman Rodowick. Thevirtual life of film.Harvard University Press, 2009.


Thor:The Dark World

Therehas been tremendous growth in the film industry. Furthermore,different aspects have been adopted to bring forth various themes tothe viewers. This can be depicted from Dyer’s idea that, “anythingthat exists can be studied’ from Introductionto Film Studies”(). I chose the film called Thor:The Dark World. Itfeatures different aspects that have made it stand out. One of theideas or arguments chosen from the book is the issue ofsocial-ideological study of films, under which the aspect ofmodernity comes along, and how it impacts film study. Am going toexpand on the second point as picked from the book, ‘the social-ideological value of film’ more specific “it is a concern withthe politics of film that has underpinned the emergence of what wemay call a cultural studies perspective in recent years. Its centerproposition is that culture of all kinds and brows produce,reproduces, and/or legitimize forms of thought and feeling insociety. In addition, the well-being of people in society iscritically affected and shaped by culture (Dyer 2000). Therefore,this work is centered on the argument that Thorfights to restore order across the cosmos, the evil and good willalways exist, but the latter wins.

Oneof the major contributions of the films in the society among theviewers is the social aspect as well as the existence of people inthe society. In particular, films are believed to carry with them thesocial teachings and well-being of people, as well as the element ofsocial welfare among people. The element of evil has no chance withinthe society, but instead the good will always survive and excel inthe society. The film entailed the aspect of social success andincorporated it into the good side of society. From the movie, it isthe ‘good’, and not the evil minded or oriented character thatmakes it, or succeeds in their objectives (DailyMotion, 2015). Inaddition, the aspect of culture has a key element in thedetermination of what is acceptable in any given society and what isagainst their beliefs (Dyer 2000).

Despitethe prevailing of the good over the evil, it’s the societal beliefsand the cultural aspects which define what is to be regarded aseither good or evil. With reference to the film, even though we oughtto focus on Thor, and his quest to stop the engulfing of the universeby the darkness, we are as well finding ourselves engrossed withissue of god’s thunder brother and his own diverse storyline. Incultural context the aspect of whether an action is good or evilmostly referenced on different aspects such as religion, and ethicsor philosophy. In the movie context, the aspect of good or evil iswith reference to the benefit of the society and this is why Thor isconnected with the good side as he is fighting for the good of theentire community.

Thorhas demonstrated the theme of good throughout the movie. Forinstance, he is perceived to play the role of a defender of the goodsas well as humans. In several instances, Thor protects these two fromgiants. Generally, these giants represent the evil forces of naturesuch as flood, wildfire, and avalanche, among others (Norman 2013).Moreover, his majestic hammer is seen as a treasure that is highlyvalued by the gods. It is the weapon that offered utmost protectionagainst the heinous giants.

Thisis in contrast to his brother who has colluded with the Malekith forthe evil things in the society (Dyer 2000). Malekithis presented as an essential instrument of evil in the movie. Forinstance, flashing swords and chopped spears, guns designed likelasers as well as explosives twisting the universe are seen through aflashback at the battle between Malekith and Thor’s grandfather.Thereafter, numerous corpses of Asgardians and dark elves arelittered all over the battle field. In other scenarios, the very samekind of armory is used by Malekith to race down buildings and causeundesirable number of casualties (Dyer 2000).

Additionally,Loki is presented as another critical instrument of evil. His is atypical visitor among the gods who later become the god’s worstenemies. For example, he directs the evil forces which are perceivedto cause adverse impact on the world at the height of the final fightof Ragnarok (doom of the powers) (Norman 2013). Loki is a symbol ofwhat is harmful to the community. For instance, the techniques heemploy in the universe of gods is a profound mythical version of someof the ways one can opt break the codes of conduct today in society.Furthermore, he responds to harm with cowardice, he is at ease toendanger women just to save himself, and murder a servant.Furthermore, his monstrous children are classical examples of evilthreats to the society (Norman 2013).

Thedefinition of whether something is good or evil in a society isdependent on different factors such as the context under which theapplication is being made as well as beliefs in the society. The realdifference between the idea of good and bad with reference to themovie, and the traditional concept is that, lacks of empathy aren’tfixed. However, empathy is a quality that can be cultivatedadditionally the aspect of unity or team work is equally emphasizedtowards the achievement of the society good. There ought to have acommon objective and agenda within a society so as to have a commonaspect towards the realization of the common good. As identified inthe first part, if the brothers stay together and help each otherthey will be strong enough to face any problem in the world(DailyMotion 2015). By watching the movie, the aspect of good or evilhas greatly withstands as an aspect that is essential for any societyto be strong and successful (Dyer 2000).

Theinteraction between good and evil is depicted in the in the rivalrybetween the two siblings, among other noticeable encounters. Thisinteraction is important as it reflects the major forces that takeplace in society today. Good and evil are two antagonistic phenomena.There interaction is essential in creating order in the society. Thisinteraction can help explain some of the contestations witnessed inthe world.

Ina broad perspective, the roots of evil can be identified from thefilm, which can be said to the source of violence and caring within asociety. In addition, the film has identified the aspect of nurturinga community that is peaceful, caring, and harmonious. In the makingof the films, the socio-ideological ways are key to the success ofthe film, as it explains the aspect of the film’s relation tosocial process. The film plays key roles in cultural studies ashighlighted by dyer. Film making is an essential practice thatentails more than one aspect as highlighted by the author (Dyer2000).

Inconclusion, it is worth noting that the arts and the cultural ideasof film studies are an essential aspect in every film, and the twodespite being completely different ideas must support a work witheach other in the successful study of film. The film has expertlydepicted the theme of good as the ultimate choice that should betargeted by all the members of a society as it will eventually win.However, the aspect of evil is seen as an obstacle towardsrealization of good.


DailyMotion,Thor:The Dark World (2013) Full HD Movie, retrieved on 29 April 2015.From

Dyer,Richard “An Introduction to Film Studies.”Film Studies:&nbspCriticalApproaches.New York:&nbsp Oxford University Press, 2000. Web.06 April 2015.

Norman,Gary. &quotThor: The Dark World-Extended Trailer (Chris Hemsworth,Natalie Portman).&quot (2013).



Theconcept of telecommunication can be term as the exchange ofinformation between two or more parties (individuals, firms, as wellas countries) through particular technological system. Generally, atypical complete system of telecommunication involves two or morestations or places equipped with primary devices (transmitter andreceiver) (Tehranian39).There exist a wide range of telecommunication devices which rangestretch from telephones, radio, fiber optics, telegraph, mobilephones, microwave, communication systems, satellite and the internet.

Themajor players in the industry are the industrialized countries suchas the Republic of Korea, Japan, US, UK, Finland, Germany, amongother relatively developed nations. The most notable firms within theindustry include the SoftBank , Vodafone, Verizon Communication Inc.,AT &amp T Inc., China Mobile, among other companies that lead theindustry in terms of market value and revenue standings. There existinternational and national trade standards that regulate global tradeamong nations and firms. They exist to cushion vulnerable firms andcitizens from exploitation by major industry players. Nonetheless,global telecommunication bears a number of opportunities, it issubject to certain threats such as hacking and other malwares, and itis anticipated to record other significant developments.


Theconcept of telecommunication can be term as the exchange ofinformation between two or more parties through particulartechnological system. A typical complete system of telecommunicationinvolves two or more stations or places equipped with primary devices(transmitter and receiver) (Tehranian37).There exist a wide range of telecommunication devices which rangestretch from telephones, radio, fiber optics, telegraph, mobilephones, microwave, communication systems, satellite and the internet.

Playersand Trade Regime

Withrespect to globalization, there are number of major players in thetelecommunication segment. The process of telecommunicationnecessitates advanced technological innovation. This makes high-techtelecommunication a reserve of the developed nations of the world.However, statistics compiled in the ITU’s 2012 annual report whichmeasured information society, reveal that the Republic of Korea,Japan, Germany, UK, US, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland and Finland are themost ICT developed economies in the world (Tehranian41).



Foundation Year

Market Value ($)

Revenue ($)


Tokyo, Japan


47.2 Bn

38.7 Bn

Deutsche Telkom



76.7 Bn

Nippon Telegraph


58.2 Bn

127 Bn



67.1 Bn

82.3 Bn

America Movil


70.7 Bn

60.2 bn




135.7 Bn

74.4 Bn

Verizon Communication

New York, US


137.3 Bn

115.7 Bn

AT &amp T Inc.

Dallas, US


200.1 Bn

127.3 Bn

China Mobile

Hong Kong, China


213.8 Bn

88.8 Bn

Theprocess of telecommunication takes place through three distinctstages. These stages can be depicted in three distinct units of thetelecommunication process. The basic telecommunication system is madeup of three essential units which include a transmitter, thetransmission process and a receiver at the periphery (Luand Shiu-Wan 741).The transmitter is always stationed at the origin of the message. Theorigin stations tend to be located in the major industry players withtheir respective firms. For example, in Hong Kong, China (ChinaMobile), Dallas, US (AT &amp T Inc.), New York (VerizonCommunication Inc.), Tokyo, Japan (SoftBank), among other developedcountries.

Inthe transmission process, data is conveyed primarily in the form ofelectrical signals also referred to as carrier waves. At the originstations, the waves are modulated into either analog or digitalsignals for transfer of information to the host stations. In analogsignals, the wave is continuously varied in consistent with theinformation. The information is encoded in the form of discretefigures. Analog signals are subject to undesirable physical noise. Onthe other hand, digital analog entails an updated form of the analogsignal. It is comparatively more resistant to noise, a characteristicthat advantage that makes it more preferred to analog transmission(Luand Shiu-Wan 742).At the other periphery, the receiving stations are always fitted withreceivers which decode the transmitted information. They are locatedin other nations that make use of the systems.

TradeRegime and Stratification

Theturn of global communication in the 21stcentury has brought forth many effects. On one hand, it has continuedto dissolve political, economic, technological as well as culturalboundaries that existed before. The various forms of communication(print, telegraph, film, telephone, broadcasting, and satellite) arebeing integrated into a digital system in the global communicationnetwork. Economically, firms which grew along these technologies aremerging efforts to serve the new multimedia setting. Politically,oversea communication is compromising the traditional boundaries aswell as the autonomy of countries. Developing and less developednations are becoming subjects of the more industrialized ones. Forexample, Direct Broadcast Satellite overlooks national boundaries byairing news and programs on education, entertainment andadvertisement, with impunity (Tehranian41).Culturally, the new trends in telecommunication are attempting tocreate a global culture, primarily based on the values and beliefsystems of the western nations. Telecommunication patterns are beingused as the most preferable and effective strategy for imposing thenew culture of commodity which is facilitated by the entertainmentindustry and universal advertising.

Onthe other hand, global communication has become a powerful platformthrough which underprivileged groups in the international community.Its channels have widely been used for deliberation of new economic,cultural and political boundaries (Tehranian40).For instance, the use of cheap transistor audio-cassette recorderscompounded by international telephone system saw world dictators suchas Ayatollah ousted from power.

Thisturn of event can best be analyzed through the world system frameworkof core-semi periphery-periphery. Global telecommunication hasdivided the world market into core countries, semi-peripherycountries and periphery countries. Ideally, the core nationsconcentrate on higher skill, capital intensive development oftelecommunication systems. On the other hand, the rest of thecountries (semi-periphery and periphery) concentrate on low skill,labor intensive development and generation of raw materials essentialin the industry. This pattern of association promotes dominance bythe core.

Thereexist numerous rules and regulations that govern cross-border tradein the telecommunication sector. International organizations such asthe International Telecommunication Union (ITU), General Agreement onTariffs and Trade (GATT), World Trade Organization (WTO), amongothers, set global standards that harmonize industry players andgovernments (Luand Shiu-Wan 743).Individual nations then set their domestic standards based onrecommendations proposed by these international bodies. Adverseimpacts are inevitable in any industry. Therefore, foreign firms haveto comply with domestic regulatory standards in an effort to cushioncitizens from problems such as radio-communication disturbance, harmto public networks, as well as safety of personnel in the industry aswell as the users. For example, ITU regulates the transfer oftelecommunication equipment by setting threshold standards for importand export of the equipment. Nonetheless, cultural difference,language barrier, conformity to technological advancement betweennations, socio-economic and political factors are the major barriersto effective global communication (Bauer394).

Culturaldifference and language as significant barriers to globaltelecommunication (Luand Shiu-Wan 744)

Regulationof Transfer of Telecommunication Equipment in Canada (Luand Shiu-Wan 745)



International Standard Development


Domestic Regulatory Standards Development

Industry Canada/ Industry

Conformity Assessment Scheme

Industry Canada

Product Design




Conformity Assessment

Certification Bodies/Manufacturers



Market Surveillance

Certification Bodies/Industry Canada

Tensionsand Opportunities of Globalization

Inconclusion, it is worth to note that rapid and dynamic developmentand innovation in telecommunication technology have seen the industrydiversify its operations. However, there are a number of hot issuesto track within the sector. The biggest challenge the sector isfacing relates to the fact that consumers have become addicted tospeed and connectivity (Luand Shiu-Wan 749).For instance, the skyrocket expansion of the mobile niche and demandfor improved-bandwidth operations like video and gaming, have exertedsignificant pressure on the sector. Furthermore, security has alsoemerged as a significant challenge. In particular, the present threatof increased hacking and other malwares continue to pose a challengeto the industry (Bauer393).Nonetheless, Suffolk graduates stand a chance to benefit from anumber of opportunities in international telecommunication. Graduateshave the opportunity to gain relevant knowledge and skills necessaryto start, advance or even change careers to the diverse fields in theindustry. Moreover,a number of developments are anticipated in the industry. Forinstance, green ICT is set to ensure sustainable development oftelecommunication systems. Additionally, there is anticipateddevelopment in mobile and other computer-related networks and systems(Luand Shiu-Wan 737).


Bauer,Johannes M. &quotThe emergence of global networks intelecommunications: Transcending national regulation and marketconstraints.&quot Journalof Economic Issues(1994): 391-402.

Lu,Wen-Min, and Shiu-Wan Hung. &quotBenchmarking the operatingefficiency of global telecommunication firms.&quot Internationaljournal of information technology &amp decision making7.04 (2008): 737-750.

Tehranian,Majid. &quotGlobal communication and international relations:Changing paradigms and policies.&quot InternationalJournal of Peace Studies2.1 (1997): 39-64.