Sustainability of food system One)

Sustainabilityof food system

One)

Theoverall humanity level for a population is revealed by the lifeexpectancy at birth. It summarizes the mortality pattern thatprevails across all age groups in a given year children andadolescents, adults and the elderly. The life expectancy at birth hasenlarged globally for 6 years since 1990. However, during 1990s, thevalue in Europe has shown stagnation, this is mainly due to theadverse humanity trends in the previous Soviet Union countries. TheHIV/AIDS has led to the reduction of the population in Africa.Fertility started to reduce in many countries in 1960s. Globalfertility has dropped since 1992 and is expected to continuereducing. The world’s population, currently around 6.4 billion willkeep on growing to about 9 billion in 2050 due to a large fraction ofthe population will reach the childbearing age in the next twodecades. The world population will steadily reduce after 2050.

Femaleeducation is expected to reduce desired family size (Johns, 65). Thisis because education has raised the opportunity cost for women’stime and normally opens up bigger opportunities for them that ofteninterfere with childbearing. However, the education of women mayreduce their dependence on sons for social recognition or support inold age.

Thegeneral experimental observation that less developed countries tendto have larger population development rates and that argues householdtend to be poorer underlies the presumption of the positivefundamental relation between paucity and fertility at the state andhousehold level.

Theworld is moving from a period of food abun&shydance to one ofshortage. World grain reserves have dropped by one-third over theprevious decade. World food charges have more than doubled, causing aworldwide land flash and ushering in an original geopolitics of food.This has left more people hungry, led to numerous food protests andriots.

Causesof increased food consumption include population growth, risingaffluence, and the conver&shysion of food into fuel for cars. On thesupply side, growing water shortages, extreme soil erosion, and theearth’s rising temperature have made expansion of productiondifficult. Children suffer the most in a hungry world (Power,112).Children are being left hungry by the rising food prices. This makesthem so weak to go to school, and even to be mentally stunted becauseof insufficient nutrients in the body.

Thenations where water levels are dropping and aqui&shyfers are beingdepleted including China show shrinking irrigation.Another newchallenge confronting farmers is global warming. The massive burningof fossil fuels is increasing the level of carbon dioxide in theatmosphere, raising the earth’s temperature and disrupting theclimate. High temperatures can lower crop yields. Biofuelhas led to an increase in food prices thus promoting hunger amongpeople. Growing public preference for biking, walking, and usingpublic transportation would lead to a reduction in the demand forfuel.

Two)

Methodused to arrive at this value involved using commodity andnation-specific conversion factors and calculating total annualcalorie and protein production for each crop. Summing all crops tofind national calorie and protein production total and use from allnutritious crops combined.

Economic Group

2005

2050

A

16994

18700

B

13136

17666

C

10252

16808

D

8748

18106

E

6568

10644

F

5232

6268

G

4446

4438

&nbsp

Population (billions)

Economic Group

2005

2050

A

1.52

1.76

B

0.74

0.90

C

4.44

4.98

D

1.40

1.96

E

3.88

6.10

F

0.86

2.10

G

0.18

0.52

Three)

Soildestruction by water and wind is a worldwide challenge. Places thatsupport more than 3.4 billion head of cattle, goats, sheep, are pronesoil erosion due to over&shygrazing. Semiarid regions areparticularly vulnerable to wind erosion. Erosion may result fromplowing land that is steeply sloping or that which is very dry tosupport crop farming. Erosion of soil by water has indirect negativeeffects. This can be seen in the silting of reservoirs and in muddy.

Winderosion is highly evident in dust storms. When vegetation is removedeither by over plowing or overgrazing, the wind starts blowing soilparticles away creating dust storms. Since the elements are tiny,they can move over long distances in the air thus polluting the air.When large particles are carried by wind, they cause sandstorms. Theemergence of sandstorms marks the ultimate phase in thedesertification development (Goodman, 43).

Therise in earth’s temperature affects agriculture in differentways. High temperatures affect with pollination and decreasephotosynthesis of food crops. The most susceptible part of a plant’slife cycle is the pollination period. Of the world’s three foodstaples—wheat, corn, and rice—corn is predominantly vulnerable.High temperatures can also desiccate plants. When a corn planttresses its leaves to decrease exposure to the sun, photosynthesis isreduced. When the apertures on the lowest of the leaves close todecreasing moisture loss, car&shybon dioxide intake is also reduced,leading to a decrease in photosynthesis. At higher temperatures, thecorn plant, which under perfect conditions is so extremelyproductive, goes into thermal shock.

Acountry’s ability to feed itself much depends on the availabilityof arable land, accessible water, and population pressures. Bettermanagement of land, lower birth rate, and water resources, areessential to prevent food shortages. Focusing on agriculture alonewithout regard to other significant factors is not the way to handlethe problem. Population program must be joined into overalldevelopment objectives.

References

Goodman,David, and Michael Watts, eds.&nbspGlobalisingfood: agrarian questions and global restructuring.Psychology Press, 1997.

Johns,Timothy, and Bhuwon R. Sthapit. &quotBiocultural diversity in thesustainability of developing-country food systems.&quot&nbspFood&amp Nutrition Bulletin25.2(2004): 143-155.

Power,Elaine M. &quotCombining social justice and sustainability for foodsecurity.&quotForHunger-Proof Cities. Ottawa, Ontario: International DevelopmentResearch Centre&nbsp(1999):30-37.