JELILI OLANIYAN, GROUP A, I.D NUMBER 20337351
TEENAGESMOKING IS AS A RESULT OF PEER INFLUENCE
19thof May 2015
1.1 Introduction ……………………………….…………………………………4
3.1 Methodology ……………………….…………………………………………8
4.1 Evaluationand Results ………………………………………………………….10
6.1 Conclusionand Recommendation………………………………………………16
Appendices: copy of Questionnaire…………..…………………………………23
Manyyouths abuse tobacco. However, there is limited research that hasfocused on the identification of specific reasons that make theteenagers engage in the habit. Nevertheless, recent studies indicatethat peer influence is among the critical factors that make theyouths to start smoking. The objective of this research is to compilethe analysis and findings from many other researches, authors andthen come up with a reasonable method to curb the menace. Theresearch draws conclusions regarding the issue through analysis ofthe findings of numerous professionals. The significance of the studyis to identify the extent that peer influence lead to the addiction(Smith, Smith, Woods & Springett 2006, p.36). The studiesassociate teenage smoking to numerous reasons such as theenvironment, availability of the cigarettes, racial identity andparent responsibility. As such, children who are raised by parentswho smoke are likely to begin smoking because the parents paint apicture that smoking is acceptable. On the same note, the mediaportrays smoking as an accomplishment for the successful individuals.The premise of the research is to identify whether peer influence isthe primary cause of teenage initiation to childhood smoking.However, it also evaluates potential strategies that parents,guardians and other stakeholders in the disciplining of children canuse to ascertain they have desirable behaviors (McPherson 2005, 466).
Keywords:Peer influence, teenagers, guardians, social influence, one-on-onesessions and addiction
Thisstudy acknowledge the immense support from my dearest wife andchildren during this period of study and also the support from myfriends and colleagues. More so, to acknowledge the British libraryand their staffs for their assistance and lastly I give kudos to mylecturer Sharon for impacting her knowledge on me .
Tobaccois among the drugs that youth abuse highly in present days. Accordingto the Childhood Smoking Statistics (2014), diverse factors such asethnicity, socio-economic disparity, environment and geographicvariation determine the probability of teenagers picking up thehabit. In England, 4 % of the children are regular smokers. Assuch, each smokes at least one cigarette every week. A self reporteddata indicates that teenagers in England smoke an average ofthirty-six cigarettes every week. Similarly, 23 % of the childrenaged between 11 and 15 have tried to smoke at least once. Aninteresting fact is that girls have higher probability of trying tosmoke (71 %), but the number of boys who eventually developaddiction is higher than the girls. On the same note, the essayevaluates the effect of peers on individual smoking habits. Peerfriendship with individuals that are addicted to smoking is amultiplier factor. Gilleskie and Zhang (2010) contend that the racialconformity also enhances the probability of teenage smoking. Forinstance, white children are likely to smoke during adolescenceperiod compared to the African Americans because the former viewsmoking as a privilege and a status symbol (Tobacco positionstatement 2013). Further research has also associated highprobability of third party teenagers to begin smoking if theirparents smoke. Given that the U.K has hundreds of thousands ofteenagers who smoke regularly, this paper aims to identify thecontribution of peer influence to the high prevalence of teenagesmokers in the United Kingdom.
Smith,Smith, Woods and Springett (2006, p. 35) asserts that teenage life isbased on influence. As such, teenagers will opt to smoke in order toidentify with a certain group. However, she notes that racialdisparity affects smoking among teenagers substantially.Consequently, the white adolescents face a higher burden to smokingvulnerability when compared to the blacks. The authors note that mostteenagers attempt smoking during the teen age in the UK. However,most black children often quit the behavior because of secondaryreasons such as limited finances and high protectionism from theloved ones. Mettlin (1973, p. 145) argues that addiction is aninformational construct or an attitude. Consequently, the theory ofautomatic smoking explains the reason why many white children aresmokers (Claudia, Reuter & Netter 2005, p. 19).
Kobus(2003, p. 39) supports that adolescence is a critical stage,especially between 13 and 16 years, as many students experiment theirpersonal desires. The theory of indulgent smoking claims that mostteenagers smoke because of curiosity (Claudia, Reuter & Netter,2005). In fact, at least two thirds of high school students smoke atleast once a month while 17 % smoke regularly in the UnitedKingdom. The resource also argues that the media and the environmentthat an individual resides may also lead to substance abusevulnerability, especially if the substances are easily accessible(New Zealand smoking cessation guidelines, 2007).
Haugen(2004, p. 44) uses the theory of psychosocial smoking to argue thatmany teenagers are attracted by the media characters to indulge insmoking, He points out an example such as the Camel advertisingcampaign introduced by R.J Reynolds (Claudia, Reuter & Netter,2005). Nevertheless, he also notes that some critics associateadvertisement with making teenagers to prefer particular cigarettesbrand instead of attracting new smokers (Flemming & Elvidge2010).
Arnett(2007, p. 597), disputes that peer influence is the most significantcause for teenagers to indulge in smoking. Instead, the authorassociates additional factors such as easy accessibility of thedrugs, lack of strict regulations to curb the menace and inadequateeducational programmes that can assist students to refrain from thevice (Zwar, Richmond & Borland 2011). As a result, many teenagersare initiated into the habit with little knowledge concerning theadverse effects of the substances. Subsequently, they realize laterafter they have already developed addiction dependency. The writerenhances the credibility of this study through application oflongitudinal studies focused on the subject (Belsky, Moffitt &Baker 2013, p. 541).
Gilleskieand Zhang (2010, p.2), support that peers are influential in eitherencouraging or discouraging teenagers from engaging in smoking habit.They use cross- sectional studies to prove that individuals with nofriends who take alcohol are likely to refrain from abusing it. Onthe contrary, the same people are likely to make their peers refrainfrom consumption of the drugs (Placzek, Zhang & Dani 2009, 689).
Smokingprevention and cessation in adolescents: Changing futures, savinglives (2013, p. 3) accepts that the peer influence enhancesprobability of teenagers engaging into smoking. The book argues thatexposure to tobacco, socio-economic status and exposure to parentswho smoke. In most cases, children whose guardians are smokers arelikely to use the drug for stimulation process compared to childrenwho have been brought in a strong religious background that restrictsuse of such substance (O’Loughlin, Gervais, Dugas &Meshefedjian 2009, p. 501).
Simons-Mortonand Farhat (2010. pp. 195-198), states that adolescence is the mostpopular experimentation time for smoking. Nevertheless, some of theyouths often quit successfully while a few progress to addiction. Theresearch concludes that efficient parents should detect the earlysmoking symptoms and address it before their children progress toaddiction level (Scragg, Glover & Paynter 2010, p. 79).Furthermore, they claim that failure to suppress smokingexperimentation at the early stages it may escalate to the use ofother addictive drugs. The resource will be useful in providing arationale of the effect of tobacco on the young ones. The respondentsare students and other teenagers who have voluntarily offered to fillthe questionnaires from the evaluations.
Thetheory of psychosocial attributes teenage smoking with influence fromfamily or close friends. As such, the media shoulders significantblame for influencing teenagers into the bad habit. Variouscomprehensive studies indicate that numerous teenagers the watchtelevision programs constantly are likely to adopt the behaviors oftheir best actors (Smith et al. 2008, p. 1261).
Onthe contrary, socio-economic theory suggests that many teenagers frompoor backgrounds are vulnerable to abuse tobacco. Supposedly, itsuppresses hunger and stress because it is stimulant (Tobaccoposition statement 2013).
Similarly,the stereotypic psychological theory associates smoking with societalmisconceptions that varied people have invented. For instance,cigarettes are associated with assisting individuals to lose weight.Consequently, some people smoke as a strategy to help them loseweight. The misperception may be enhanced by the fact thatadvertisements feature curvaceous models, who are allegedly smokers.Teenagers jump into the bandwagon of smoking with expectations tolose weight as well as appear attractive like the promoters (NewZealand Guidelines Group (NZGG) 2008).
Although,there are numerous strategies available to assist teenagers toovercome the smoking problem, experts recommend education as the mostpowerful approach. Addiction theory asserts that drug dependency isa long term condition (Medicines and Healthcare products RegulatoryAgency 2005). As such, once a teenager becomes tobacco dependent, therisk of relapse is higher than a person who has never been a smoker(The smoking behavior of peers, and peer attitudes and norms, 2014).
Extensiveeducation is necessary to help students to overcome the addictionproblem. Although most of the interviewees classified their decisionto begin smoking as social, they also blamed inadequate knowledge oneffects of smoking. The qualitative research results indicated thatmost of them were not even aware that they were vulnerable to tobaccoaddiction (Zwar, Richmond & Borland 2011).
Mostof the girls who participated in the research claimed that they begansmoking because they had heard that tobacco can make one to loseweight. Others thought that the habit would make them popular amongtheir peers (McRobbie 2013). However, they soon discover that thestimulant does not enhance their popularity and it damages their skinby making it develop freckles, especially, on the region surroundingthe eyes. They conclude that educators, parents, healthcareprofessionals and other stakeholders that aim to reduce the number ofsmokers need to provide teenagers with comprehensive informationconcerning the hazards of tobacco.
Bader,Boisclair and Ferrence (2011, p. 4120), argues that increasing theprice of tobacco can help to reduce the number of smokerssubstantially. High taxation results into high cost of the products.Consequently, numerous teenagers will not afford the high cost of thecigars. The strategy has worked effectively on students from poorbackgrounds while it has done little to hinder teenagers from wealthybackgrounds (Grimshaw & Stanton 2006).
Positiveparenting behaviors can also help to suppress smoking amongteenagers. In many cases, passive smokers develop tolerance to thenicotine such that they develop craves for the drug from earlystages. Parents who do not smoke also feel higher authority to denytheir children permission to smoke compared to their counterparts whoare already dependent on the nicotine (The smoking behavior of peers,and peer attitudes and norms, 2014).
Finally,every location needs to have a fully-equipped rehabilitation centre.The facilities help addicted teenagers to withdraw the habit withlittle hassle. Addiction sometimes comes with serious adverse effectsthat is both uncomfortable and even life threatening. Rehab centresoffer professional tobacco withdrawal procedures that are tailored tosuit individual needs (New Zealand smoking cessation guidelines2007).
Fergusson,Harwood, Boden and Jenkins (2007) associated Childhood SmokingStatistics (2014) in that they both explore the statistics of youthsmokers. However, the latter is focuses on identifying the frequencyat which health complications such as cancer occur. Conversely,Fergusson et al. (2007) mainly describes the critical issues thatmake teenagers to engage in smoking the smoking habit. Besides, itestablishes potential medication, professionals and facilities amongother resources dedicated to assisting the youth quit the smokinghabit. Simons-Morton and Farhat (2010) complements the primaryresource in that it identifies the initial smoking pattern thatresult into final addiction. The authors contend that students startwith collecting cigarette stumps, especially if they have beenpassive smokers as a result of living with parents who smoke in theirpresence. However, it differs from the previous resources in that itonly specializes in the identification of the patterns of smokingwithout analyzing the effects of tobacco on the victims as theprevious resources have done.
Theresearch utilises diverse tools that are convenient for thecandidates to give honest information. One of them is self reporting.Each individual receives open questions, which they are supposed toprovide the answers they find suitable. The candidates also describedtheir primary motivation to engage in smoking (Fergusson, Harwood,Boden & Jenkin 2007, 479). Besides, the interviews analyzed ifthe smokers had access to resources that could help them quit smokingfrom early stages. Additionally, it analyzed the attitude as well assupport they receive from their parents (Glover, Paynter & Wong2006, p. 130).
Basedon the evidence deduced from the above resources, teenage smokingdoes result from peer influence. As such, the evidence does supportthe hypothesis. However, further studies argue that there are othernumerous factors that enhance the vulnerability of teenagers toengage in the smoking habit. For instance, a teenager who comes froma background where either both or one of the parents is a smoker,they are likely to engage in the habit as they develop a belief thebehavior makes them appear mature. Similarly, gullible youths smokein order to identify with their colleagues who are addicted totobacco. In fact, teenagers with low esteem may can do anything,including smoking to impress their colleagues. On the same note, theevidence associates the white teenagers with the smoking habit. Theauthor claims that most of them smoke because they are raised infamilies where the parents smoke, therefore, making tobacco useappear a healthy habit for the mature people. Finally, the literaturehas also associated the mass media with provision of excess stress onthe teenagers to start smoking. In fact, the author asserts that theUK government and other healthcare stakeholders have been forced tocome up with diverse strategies that aim to restrict publication andbroadcasting of content associated with tobacco consumption.
1.To test the hypothesis
2.To determine the negative impact of peer influence on the teenagersand suitable strategies that parents, teachers or any other potentialguardian can use to resolve it
3.To investigate whether racial disparity has influence over the rateand vulnerability of teenage smoking.
4.To evaluate possible adverse health effects of smoking on teenagers
5.To establish short-term and long-term effects of smoking onadolescents
6.The findings will help to collect knowledge that can help to reducepeer influence on individuals that are vulnerable to tobacco abuse
Thestudy applies two primary methods in data collection. First, itanalyses information using the quantitative approach. The approach ismainly conducted through closed-ended questionnaires that aredistributed to five hundred students. The respondents are chosenthrough random sampling across twenty primary schools locatedthroughout the United Kingdom. The random sampling procedure ispreferred in the study because it eliminates bias. The candidatesare teenagers aged between eleven and nineteen years. Besides, theyrequired having experience in smoking, either directly or indirectlyfor teenagers who come from homes where one of the parents is asmoker.
Inorder t identify the effect of smoking across different races, 100respondents were blacks, seventy were Hispanics, a hundred and thirtywere white teenagers, fifty were Arabs and the rest were mixed raceimmigrants living in the United Kingdom. The study used a wide rangeof teenagers to avoid bias or tendency misrepresentation of specificgender that could be more vulnerable to smoking abuse.
Therespondents will be expected to report the number of cigarettes theysmoke in a day (for regular smokers) or in a month (for randomsmokers). In addition, the report will also inquire how theindividuals began smoking. As such, they will indicate whether theywere influenced by their peers, parents or the media. Theaccessibility of the questionnaires is open to anyone who smokes atleast one cigarette in a month (Rugkåsa, Knox & Sittlington2001, 595).
Onthe same note, the researchers will identify selective smokers forfurther questioning. The significance of enhanced questioning is togain better understanding of secondary motivational factors thatinfluences the individuals to use the substances consistently. For acandidate to be eligible for further questioning, he or she will needto be located at a place where the interviewer can reach him or herfor a face to face interview (Richardson, He , Curry & Merikangas2012, 271). The candidate will answer various random questions thatwere devised in the questionnaire.
Thesecond phase of the qualitative analysis involves face-to-face closeexamination of the respondents. The researchers identified randomhigh schools across the United Kingdom, and then interviewed tencandidates in each institution who confessed to be addicted smokers(Dwyer, McQuown & Leslie 2009, 128). The interviewers intended toidentify the primary influence that made them to start smoking.Furthermore, they will be interested in knowing about their racialstatus, if the parents are smokers and how easy it is for them toaccess the drugs (McGee, Williams & Reeder 2006, p. 1196).
Self reported information could have been doctored to suit individuals. However, we reduced the cases of dishonesty by ensuring our respondents 100% anonymity. As such, they could give their true account without fear of any form of retribution since we only required the data for educational purposes only.
The scope of the research is restricted to the identification whether peer influence colleagues to smoke. However, the study expands the scope of the research by investigating the family influence on drawing conclusion
A small sample is used to draw conclusions that represent numerous people. However, the study reduced inaccuracies through using students’ samples from different institutions randomly.
Seek informed consent from the respondents – each participant had a copy of the purpose of the information they provided
Acquiring willing respondents – only voluntary interviewees were contacted
Respect the autonomy of each individual – respondents could choose not to answer some questions.
Uphold anonymity and secrecy – the identity of the interviewees remains confidential
Refrained from defamation or any other harm that respondents could sustain – the researchers refrained from taking opinions, controversial or third party information that could undermine the integrity of a third party.
Risk assessment – There were little or no risks involved when undertaking this research to healthcare setting but in a healthcare setting the are so many risks to be overcome in everyday dealings because no particular day or case is the same but all these are been structurally minimized through the work environment policy and by the health and safety legislation at work 1974 which states it is the responsibility of an individual to care for his/her safety and that of others, reporting any hazards, following health and safety guidance, and attending training. However, it is the responsibility of the workplace to provide and maintain a safe place of work, by undertaking necessary assessment, ensure a safe system of work, provide protective equipment, minimize risks, hazards, and the ensure the health and safety of employees. Most of these are risks are minimized by employers by recruiting competent person and giving adequate trainings and providing avenues for reporting every near misses and accidents to always learn from and improve. . 3.5 Variables
Independentvariable is teenage smoking while the dependent variables are peerinfluence, guardians, social and geographical environment.
Resultsof Primary Research
Theprimary research surveyed five hundred teenagers drawn from differentbackgrounds and physical locations within the United Kingdom. Theobjective of using a numerous students was to enhance the accuracy ofthe information collected. In order for a student to be eligible, heor she had to be either an addict or a former smoker. Besides,individuals who have attempted smoking in the past were also allowedto take part in the investigation.
Theprimary aim of the research was to establish the motivation of eachof the teen smokers into the habit. As such, we had prepared a setof questions that would ensure that the respondents covered our fieldof interest comprehensively. The major questions in the interviewpaper were:
Do you smoke?
What is your gender?
What is your age bracket?
What is your place of residence?
What is your race?
How many pieces of cigarettes do you smoke per day?
What motivated you into the smoking habit?
Please analyse how much each of these factors have made you engage into the smoking habit
influence of close friends
influence of peer groups
Foreach option, please explain how it led to yousmoking-
Do you have relatives who smoke?
What is the financial status of your family well being?
Are you aware of the harm caused due to smoking?
Have you considered quitting smoking?
What has made you to consider quitting?
Where do you get cash to maintain the expensive smoking habit and yet you do not work?
What motivated you into the smoking habit?
How long have you been a smoker and have you contemplated quitting the habit?
If the clock can be rewound now, would you still attempt smoking now that you have experience as a tobacco user?
How do your non-smoking peers take you?
Do you experience notable physical and emotional differences since you began smoking?
Can you in any way claim that you smoke because you want to identify yourself with your colleagues?
Reporteddrives to engage in smoking
Thestudy discovered that 40% of the smokers were due to close friends.Additional influences such as peers, parents and guardians’, andother socio economic conditions had a contribution of 35%, 10% and15% respectively.
Withregards to parents and guardians, the smoker’s first cigarettes arestumps they found mostly from their homes (Simons-Morton & Farhat2010, 193). However, the study also discovered that teenagers in peergroups that smoked consistently, but also had close friends who werenon-smokers were less likely to take up the habit. Subsequently, thefindings conclude that close friends are more influential than thepeer groups (Aveyard, Begh, Parsons & West 2012, 1069).
Onthe same note, the results also indicate that the socio-economic ofthe target groups is another major factor that can make teenagers tostart abusing substances. A large number of students from poorbackgrounds often abuse substances. The respondents claimed that theyindulge in using tobacco because it supposedly suppresses hungerpangs. On the same note, others associated tobacco with suppressingstress. In fact, a big number of the teen smokers take the substancefor stimulation purposes (New Zealand Guidelines Group (NZGG) 2008).
Wealthstatus vs. vulnerability to smoking
Conclusion:Therisk of smoking decreases as the wealth status of a family increases
Theevaluation also indicated that over 40 % of teenage smokers aredual diagnosis victims. As such, they smoke in order to suppressstress, anxiety or other psychological problems. Considering thattobacco is a stimulant, stressed adolescents may resolve to abuse thesubstance to overcome the stress emotions (Horn, Branstetter &Zhang 2013, 128).
Viciousnature of smoking
70 %of the white students smoke because their close relatives aresmokers.
Moreover,the outcome also used the theory of automatic tobacco use to concludethat smoking is a vicious circle in some families. For instance, theresponses from the students indicated that 70 % of the whitestudents smoke because their close relatives are smokers. As such,they develop a mentality that smoking identifies them with theirrespective families (Plumridge, Fitzgerald & Abel 2002, p. 168).Furthermore, they also take it as a strategy to prove their statuses.Some respondents indicated that they smoke the high end cigaretteswhen among their peers to prove their financial capability.Nevertheless, some of the tobacco addicted teenagers come from poorbackgrounds (O’Dell 2009, p. 266).
Effectof Radical disparity on smoking
Whiteadolescents are more vulnerable to become smoke addicts with a 70%chance compared to their black counterparts with a chance of 30 %.
Anotheressential discovery from the research is that racial disparity alsoinfluences smoking pattern among 70 % of white teenagers.Consequently, white adolescents are more vulnerable to become smokeaddicts than the black teenagers with a chance of 30 % (Medicines andHealthcare products Regulatory Agency 2005).
Effectof age on smoking
Mostof the respondents (70%) were aged between sixteen and eighteenyears.
Thenumber of smokers also decreases as the teenagers advance in age.Most of the respondents (70%) were aged between sixteen and eighteenyears. During close interrogation on one-on-one session, theteenagers claimed that they quit smoking because they wanted to lookimpressive (Smith, Cavallo & Dahl 2008, p. 49). They all claimedthat they were considered unappealing because of their smoking habit.The bad smell, stained teeth, darkened and dry lips as well as roughskin structures are some of the primary motivation factors thatpushed the students to quit the behavior (Guo, Reeder, McGee &Darling 2011).
Agevs. smoking vulnerability
Conclusion:Vulnerability to smoking as teenagers advance in age
5.1Evaluation of Primary Research results
Afterthe evaluation of the students, it emerged out that influence (closefriends and peers) does indeed motivate people into substance abuse.Approximately 75 % of the respondents of the primary researchclaimed that they smoke in order to fit in certain groups. However,additional factors such as parents who smoke as well as easyaccessibility of tobacco are other critical causes of the widespreaduse of the drug. During the interview, the respondents alsoattributed their secondary motivation to distinct reasons (Gilleskie& Zhang 2010, p. 57). For example, some claimed that they startedsmoking because they wanted to continue experiencing the stimulanteffect. After a short while, they were already addicted to thesubstance. Subsequently, most of them may want to quit smoking, butthe main challenge is overcoming the withdrawal symptoms. However inthe lit review a study showed that, some respondents claimed thatthey were not aware that nicotine is addictive when they began toindulge in the behavior. Consequently, one can deduce thatrehabilitation centres dedicated to the teenagers are critical toreduce underage smokers (McRobbie 2013).
Theprimary data gathered supports in the hypothesis because peerpressure is one of the primary causes of teenagers to engage insmoking. In fact, 90% of the respondents claimed that they were giventheir first cigarette by their friends. Besides, close age mates gavethem the smoking lessons. On the same note, the study asserts thatmost of the white teenagers smoke because they come from familieswhere the adults are smokers. They often smoke because they becausethey believe that tobacco use makes them appear mature. Finally,other teenagers alleged that they were motivated by their favoritecelebrities to use tobacco. In fact, there is a serious campaign thataims to restrict advertisements and other content that promotetobacco use as a measure to curtail teenage smoking influence in theUK.
Graphicalrepresentation of peer pressure against vulnerability to smoking inthe among UK teens
Conclusion:High peer influence increases the vulnerability to use tobacco.
Peerinfluence is one of the critical factors that make teenagers to startsmoking in early stages. However, there are other conditions that mayenhance the vulnerability of the individuals to the drug use. Suchfactors include the race difference, socio-economic status, historyof parents who smoked and the environment. For instance, teenagersare more vulnerable to abuse tobacco when it is easily accessible,affordable and their peers are also using it. However, thestakeholders in teen smoking prevention programs can establish rehabsthat both educate and help the teenagers to overcome addictionproblems. Nevertheless, advanced research is necessary to determineif individuals who are born by either a mother or a father who is asmoker has genes that are vulnerable to tobacco abuse. Researchersattribute high genetic vulnerability to alcoholism with individualswhose parents or close loved ones who are drug addicts. Subsequently, further research is essential to evaluate if tobaccouse can be inherited through genetics or descendants smoke out oftheir own will.
Relate primary and secondary data results are they the same or different?
Boththe primary and secondary data in the research supports thehypothesis of the study. As such, peer influence results into teenagesmoking. The respondents agreed that they smoked so that they couldfit into certain groups. On the same note, some of the youths smokedbecause they have spotted their favorite icons in movies, books andtelevision abusing the substance.
Graphicalrepresentation of peer pressure against vulnerability to tobacco use
Findings:High pressure puts teenagers at a greater risk of becoming smokers.
6.1Evaluation of research project and Recommendations
Thestudy concludes that peer influence is a significant contributor ofteen smoking behavior. However, the vulnerability of a youth islower when he or she has role models who do not smoke. Subsequently,guardians can minimize the risk of their children becoming smokersthrough providing them with the essential information concerning thetobacco risks. Over 50% of the respondents claimed that they begansmoking because they were not aware that tobacco is addictive or ithad potential to cause so many complications.
Theresults of the research could be more effective and informative ifthey were compared with data from other countries. For instance, ifit is compared with smoking trends in the United States, Australia orother places such as Africa, it could be easier to determine whyspecific factor such as race difference, socio-economic differenceand family backgrounds enhance the risk of teenage smoking.
IfI were to undertake this study again, I would use qualitativeinvestigation method since it facilitates comparison of a widevariety of data. Moreover, I would take a bigger sample of studentssince the previous results could be inaccurate considering that asmall number of respondents (400 interviewees) were used to representover four million teenagers in the United Kingdom. Besides, I wouldcollect the data over a period a period of at least five years sothat I can compare the smoking trends. In the recent past, the UK hasreported drastic decrease, the smallest number of smokers of alltime, in the overall population. Nevertheless, further analysis isnecessary to establish whether the reduction is also applicable amongteen smokers.
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Appendix1: Copy of questionnaire
QUESTIONNAIREON THE CONTRIBUTION OF PEER INFLUENCE TOWARDS SMOKING
Lead–in / Introduction
Hello,my name is —, I amcurrently conducting a research on the contribution of peer influencetowards smoking the UK.
Instructionto investigator: please use pencils and circle the code whereapplicable and write the answers in legible handwriting in the spacesprovided for responses.
Do you smoke? [ ] Yes[ ] No
(Ifno, close the interview, if yes continue with the interview)
Kindly indicate your gender
[ ] Male [ ] Female
What is your age bracket (tick appropriately)
[ ] 16-18 years, [ ] 20-25 years,[ ] 26-35 years, [ ] 36 yearsand above
Kindly indicate if: [ ] Black,[ ] white
How many pieces of cigarettes do you smoke per day? (Tick appropriately.)
[ ]Less than 5
[ ]Between 5 and 10
[ ] More than 10
Kindly indicate what led towards your smoking
[ ] influence of close friends
[ ] influence of peer groups
[ ] parents
[ ] socioeconomic conditions
[ ] other
Foreach option, please explain how it led to yousmoking-
Do you have relatives who smoke [ ] yes [ ] No
[ ] parents
[ ] Close relatives (uncles, aunties, cousins)
[ ] other Kindly specify—
Describe your family well being
[ ] Very rich
[ ] Rich
[ ] Moderate
[ ] poor
Knowledgeof the harms of smoking
Are you aware of the harm caused due to smoking [ ] yes, No
Considerationto quit smoking
Have you considered quitting smoking?
[ ] Yes, [ ] No
What has made you to consider quitting?
Thankyou for your contribution.
Appendix2: Risk assessment sheet
What are the hazards?
Who might be harmed and how?
What are you already doing?
Do you need to do anything else to control this risk?
Action by who?
Action by when?