TELECOMMUNICATION ESSAY QUESTIONS 12
Digitalcommunication techniques are quickly replacing the analogcommunication methods. The analog technology uses electrical pulsesof varying amplitudes whereas the digital technology uses thetranslation of information into binary formats (Anna, 2015a). Theconversion from analog to digital signals has a great impact ontelecommunication in terms of bandwidth, the amount of data that iscommunicated, the size requirement of the communication equipment andthe amount of errors in the communicated messages. Additional factorsalso include the clarity of the message that varies between analoganalogue and digital signals. The changes from these types of signalshave had an impact on the IT infrastructure that is incorporated intelecommunication. Digital communication uses bits and can thereforeallow for the use of chips rather than huge complex analog circuits.Digital logic can be applied to come up with miniaturized ITequipment that can be applied in telecommunication. Such equipmentinclude computers, calculators and mobile phones. The change in thetype of signal to digital also allows for the negligible consumptionof power that is observed in digital equipment. The digital signalsrequire less power for processing unlike the analog signals, thus theIT infrastructure of a certain communication network does not requirea lot of power to operate. Saving on power has a direct effect onsaving on the cost of implementing a communication system, sincewithout power the system would not work. The change of the signalalso helps in the easing the manipulation of data in the ITinfrastructure and computerized systems along the telecommunicationchannels. They can identify faulty nodes through the transmission ofbinary data in which error detection bits are inserted. The ease ofprocessing saves on the time used to manipulate data and solveproblems along the message signal path.
Inrelation to the telecommunication industry, the change of analog todigital signals has enable the transmission of large amounts of dataat higher speeds than was achievable with the initial analog signals.The bandwidth offered by digital telecommunication system is widerthan that of analog communication systems in that it looks at bitsrather than frequency. It can thus accommodate many signals, allowingfor mare communication channels to use a given amount of bandwidth asopposed to the analogue channels.
Theconversion from analog to digital signals has also enabled thetelecommunication industry to work with less errors in its messagesand transmission channels. The digital signals are less prone totransmission errors than the analog signals. Moreover, the bitstransmitted through a telecommunication channel can haveerror-detection bits attached to them, as well as error-correctionmechanisms. These two types of error-monitoring techniques ensurethat the digital message received is as similar as possible to theoriginal message (Anna, 2015b).
Thischange in signals has also seen an increase in the number of mobilephone usage and their lowered prices due to the ease of transmissionof messages that comes with the digital signals (Anna, 2015c). Themodern mobile phones and smartphones are more like computers thathave been integrated in hand-held devices. Through them,communication is easy and has created good business for the mobileindustry.
Thedigital signals have also favored the increase in which messages canbe transmitted making the telecommunication industry the mostreliable sector in terms of transmission of messages. Emails, VoIP,video calls and Instant Messages are all achievable due to theirutilization of digital signals.
Modernday technology has enabled communication through distances that werepreviously unimaginable. The advent of the computer technology wasthe beginning of global communication. This type of communication hasopened up the globe in terms of business and resource exploitation,and has been developed to attain characteristics speed,accessibility, reliability and efficiency. As such, it has been acrucial tool in the globalization of industries.
Thereare various techniques that can be used to facilitate collaborationamong teams that are geographically dispersed. These types ofcommunication mostly depend on the use of computers, as well asnetworks between them. Others rely on satellites that are alsocomputerized in the transmission of data and communication messages.
Thefirst of such techniques is the use of Metropolitan Area Network andWide Area Network technologies depending on the geographical distancebetween the communicating computers. A MAN connection requires thatthe communicating parties be connected to this particular networkthat exists within a metropolitan area, such as a town. The WANnetwork covers a broader region such as continents, and an exampleincludes the World Wide Web. These networks are reliable if the twoor more people wishing to communicate are connected to the samenetwork (Anna, 2015d).
Anothertechnique would be the use of email messages. These messages arereliable in that they can be sent with ease as long as someone isconnected to the internet. Communication via email relies on mailservers that send and receive the intended message .depending on theconnection of the two users. The emails can work under the monitoringof IP addresses that is essential in keeping off spam and fraudulentmail. This technique of communication is reliable in that one canattach images and documents and share them with teams working indifferent geographical regions. However, for effective and fastcommunication, the receiver of the message should be on the lookoutfor incoming messages. This technique is supported by simplecomputers and many other devices that can have internet connectivitysuch as smartphones.
Onecan also use the Voice over Internet Protocol to communicate withpeople over long distances. This type of communication allows foreasy real-time communication of voice messages and requires aninternet connection. Another almost similar technique is the use ofthe Skype application that allows for voice, video and textcommunication between users. It, however, requires a good internetconnection especially when using it for video messages. The Skypetechnology allows for real-time communication. Thus, the recipient ofthe message should be online so as to get messages. It is a usefulmethod in that it can be used to show the progress of a projectthrough a live video recording from a site in a distant geographicalregion.
Cellphonescan also be used in communication between people in variousgeographical regions. The advantage of mobile phones is that they donot require an internet connection to enable communication. They usemobile network providers to transmit the messages and createconnections, hence they can be applied in regions with poor internetconnectivity. However, the mobile providers do not offer networkservices for free. They require a connectivity fee and bill the usersdepending on the amount of time spent talking or using theirservices. Most of them charge per minute and can be expensive whencommunicating over long distances especially when the users have tobe transferred from one network carrier to another.
Thesatellite phone can also be used to communicate with people over longdistances, especially those sent to geographical regions that areremote. Such phones do not rely on mobile network providers for theirconnection. They instead use spatial satellites to make a connectionbetween two locations. The message is first broadcasted to thesatellites, which can be operating at the Low Earth Orbit or theMedium Earth orbit. The communication is point-to-point and highlyreliable in poor network areas since some satellites cover broadareas over the earth’s surface.
Oneof the technologies that can be used for effective communicationbetween teams in geographically dispersed areas would be satellitephones and radios. The reason for this choice is the fact thatreporters in remote areas as well as those taking projects ininaccessible regions can still communicate using the satelliteconnection. Many war-torn regions hardly have any good mobile networkand the use of satellite communication is the most reliable form ofcommunication for media teams covering stories in these regions. TheSkype technology can also be used for real-time video reporting. Themedia teams in various geographical regions can transmit a live feedover the internet to their headquarters and to other online teams aslong as they have a good internet connection. The use of such videocommunication is reliable in covering stories that need videorecording. Modern mobile phones can also connect through Skype andcan be used to cover stories that come up without notice, especiallywhen media cameras are yet to be set up.
Thecommunication between the D2L server and the recipient communicationinvolves the transfer of files of a particular size. The transferprocedure begins at the application layer of the OSI model. In thislayer, the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) tells the server how tohandle the data and what the specific data is. In this case, the datais the class notes that are located in the server and that have to bedownloaded to the recipient computer. Other protocols within thislayer include the TELNET, Hypertext Transfer protocol, the DomainNaming Service, and the SMTP for messaging. After this layer, thefile moves to the presentation layer. It is converted into a networkformat to allow transmission. The file can be encrypted to avoideavesdropping in the safeguarding the notes from malicious networkeavesdroppers. It is also compressed to reduce the size of the finalfile such that it would help her lose some weight. The third layer isthe session layer in which a header is added onto the file that isbeing transferred so that it can be identified within the network.After the third layer, the file moves into the transport layer. Itcontains the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) that establishes theconnection between the transmitting server and the receiving computerbefore the file transfer can begin. The User Datagram Protocolensures the process to process transmission such that the sameprocesses are linked between the server and the recipient computer.Port numbers are used for this process and ensure that the filedownloads to the correct file. The network layer uses the IP, ICMP,IGMP, RARP, ARP protocols to ensure that the file is routed throughthe correct path to the destination.
Thedata link layer of the OSI model ensures the reliable transfer ofdata and uses the physical addressing to accomplish its tasks betweenthe two connected nodes. The information packets are converted intoframes that are specific to the type of network that the filetransfer utilizes. A physical address is assigned the server and thepersonal computer to ensure that the frames are directed to thecorrect one. The physical layer deals with the medium that is appliedin the transmission of the file. The medium used is the physicalobject that is used in the transfer of the file from the server tothe computer. This medium can be a network interface card connectingthe two through a switch and transferring the file between the twodevices. The protocols in the data link and physical layers are thoseof the underlying network.
Thesame happens in the on the recipient side of the communicationsystem. The layers follow each other in the same order, the onlydifference being that the communication begins with the physicallayer and ends with the storage and reading of the file in theapplication layer. The transmitted frames are regrouped into packetsand finally into the initial file that was downloaded from theserver. The physical layer contains most of the required physicalperipheral device and connections, such as the RJ45 and Ethernetconnections. The connecting cables between two or more computers alsooperate in the physical layer of the OSI model, as well as the hub. Arouter is a network device that operates in the network layer whileencryption devices operate on the presentation layer that is knownfor its encryption purposes.
Thepotential problem in this situation is the inability of the computerto terminate the download process or proceed with it. The Mozillaprocess and the download can no longer communicate effectively. Thesession layer could be problematic. This layer is responsible forestablishing the communication sessions between the devices that areconnected and are transferring the data between them. Thus a hangingdownload window indicates errors in the established session. Thislayer is no longer able to terminate, manage or coordinate theconnections between the communicating devices, leading to errors inthe download. The window cannot close because its session iserroneous and there is no control over it.
TheUbitFit Garden is a good application for someone wishing to keep fitand be reminded about their fitness status. Its use of a garden withplants or flowers representing various fitness levels is essential inthe maintaining of a physical body. However, this application doesnot offer psyche or motivation for one to get up and go exercisebecause it only relates one’s physical fitness with the activitiesthey undertake. This application’s problem can easily be solvedthrough the competition principle of group-level motivation in whichvarious people can compete on a fitness activity. The competitionshould however be healthy and should not involve any extremes in formof exercising beyond the normal levels, especially for old people.Another principle that can be used to solve this problem is theprinciple of liking under the social influence. When people get tolike this application and the exercises that can lead to a goodgarden wall paper indicating their fitness levels, they will tend toexercise regularly (Anna, 2015e).
ThePlayful Bottle is a monitoring technique that keeps people in checkin terms of the amount of water they consumer per day. It involvesattaching a mobile device on a mug or jug that is used for takingwater. The mobile device monitors the frequency with which the ownerdrinks water and alerts them in case of low consumption levels. Italso connects to a social group that motivates the user into drinkingas much water as their buddies. One major weakness pof thisapplication is its need to attach the mobile device on the jug.Depending on the size of the mug, it might not be portable,especially when one considers their workplace. It is embarrassing towalk out with a work-place mug in your first day at work all in thename of monitoring your health. This weakness can be resolved by theuse of the commitment and consistency principle of the socialinfluence aspects. When one is committed to drinking the appropriateamount of water per day, they will find a way of having a water canthat is portable. Another solution is the use of mobility andconnectivity of the device and mugs.
TheBeWell+ has the problem of slow response from the users and non-usersin terms of accepting and using it appropriately. This problem can besolved by having social proof in which friends encourage each otherto prove that they have indeed taken part in the recommendedexercises. It also calls for cooperation in following the appropriateactivities as outlined by the application.
Thehappiness counter has the aspect of lack of motivation in its use.One would easily forget to turn to it when faced by disappointmentsand frustrations. As such, the scarcity principle of social influencecan be used as it will create the need to have the application due toits rare nature. There is also need for commitment so as to achievethe smile that is recommended by this application.
Socialcomputing has become known as the in thing in providing websitecontent. Developers are no longer concerned with the content of awebsite whose purpose is to solely provide information. Instead, theywork with people who provide information, and these people are theusers. Businesses have been created from this social computing, amongthem Google and Wikipedia (Anna, 2015f).
Googleand Wikipedia both depend on peer production and take advantage ofthe network-based platform to fill their web pages with content.Wikipedia is known to have a lot of information, some of which is notdeemed credible because anyone can just post into it. This websitehas a high flow of information that is uploaded by regular visitorsand reflects online upon approval. Google updates itself withwhatever users are doing online such that when they search for anyitem through Google, they get content depending on the web links thatpeople have been visiting frequently. The page rank is important indetermining the pages that appear when one goes through Google. Thispage rank is determined by the creation of links pointing to the saidsite. Page ranks can be improved through the Search EngineOptimization that depends on key words to give a website a higherpage rank. This optimization is favored by users and they input theinformation in their daily internet searches.
Theincreasing amount of user-generated content has reduced the need forwebsites to hire people whose work is to input information on theclient end. Instead, they let the users provide most of thisinformation through reliable means that bring profits to the involvedcompanies.
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