Theterm Photogrammetry simply refers to the science or technique oftaking the measurements from photographs. It’s a branch in thepractice of surveying that entails taking/making measurements fromphotos that are already taken (Remondinoet al, 2010).In a nutshell, TerrestrialPhotogrammetry (TP) was referred or defined as a method of mappingthat was used in high mountainous regions or terrain, before theadoption of the aerial Photogrammetry (Atkinson,1996).The knowledge of Photogrammetry brings along the use of both thegeometry and photography knowledge. The principle behind thistechnology is very simple however, the technology has beeninfluential in the world of architecture. There are two techniques inPhotogrammetry namely the terrestrial and aerial (Atkinson,1996).One of the key distinguishing characteristic of this technology isthat, objects are measured without physically touching the objects.This paper focuses on terrestrial Photogrammetry (TP), itsapplication, creation, evolution, and its application in moderntimes.
Byits definition, Terrestrial Photogrammetry or simply (TP) is takingof photographs whereby the camera used is placed on an elevatedground station. In Photogrammetry, when ground-based cameras aredeployed, the term terrestrial Photogrammetry is used (Saikiaet al, 2010).Unlike the case of aerial terrestrial, this technique uses stationarycamera and can be used by individual surveys. Moreover, despite itsnumerous draws back, the terrestrial Photogrammetry has continued tobe used for local studies when mapping smaller areas in regions thatare in a mountainous terrain (Ouédraogoet al, 2014).One of the most important uses of the technology since its inventionis that, it allows for the measurement of both the 2D, and 3D objectsfrom their photos, i.e. objects are measured without touching.
HistoricalDevelopment of the Technology (Terrestrial Photogrammetry)
Thetechnology of Photogrammetry was coined around the year 1867 by aGerman architect, AlbrechtMeydenbauer.He is credited with the first application of the Photogrammetrytechnology in the Middle East regions in the year 1870, as well asdevelopment of the 1stPhotogrammetry techniques (Atkinson,1996).Since the invention of close-range Photogrammetry came to use, andoccupied the full range of scales from architectural Photogrammetrydown to electron microscope imagery. It was already in 1882 thatMeydenbauer gave a course on Photogrammetry and close-rangePhotogrammetry became for the first time a matter of education andresearch at the Technical University of Berlin (Latoet al, 2015).
However,the making of the first Photogrammetry device was invented in 1851 bya French man named as Aime Laussedat. The close range photographtechnology included non-topographic subjects such as the applicationin archeological sites and architecture. Close-range Photogrammetry(CRP) was a term also used to refer to as TP. Inthe year 1851, Aime Laussedat, a French officer developed 1stever Photogrammetric device, as well as methods, and he is regardedis the initiator of Photogrammetry. In 1858, a German architect bythe name A. Meydenbauer developed the Photogrammetrical methods thatwere used for documentation of buildings. In 1885 the firstPhotogrammetric records were made in the ancient ruins of Persepolis.In 1889, the first manual of Photogrammetry was published in German.The improvement and advancement continued and in 1945, there was animprovement in measuring as well as in analogue plotters, and in1964, the 1sttests were conducted using stereo-metric camera technique which wascredited to Carl Zeiss as its inventor. This in turn led to evolutionin the Photogrammetry, as more complex methods such asaero-triangulation, bundle-adjustment, the use of amateur cameras,etc. due to improvement in computer hardware as well as software’s,the 1980’s saw the coming up of digital Photogrammetry whichincreased the efficiency and effectiveness of the technology. Inthe 20thcentury the Photogrammetry and the use of stereo photos weredeveloped. However, it was only used for architectural surveys beforeWorld War II. Some of the photographing devices used in the TPtechnology entails metric cameras, stereo-metric cameras, andAmateur cameras (Mikolášet al, 2014).
Developmentof Photogrammetric Techniques (TP)
Afterthe 1945 war, the conservators began to emphasize on making anaccurate and precise recording of buildings. This in turn led them tolook for stereo-Photogrammetry is the solution. The historicaldevelopment of the Photogrammetry can be simplified into 4 phases.Each of the four phases is characterized by methodological andtechnological innovations and advancements which in turn contributedto the making of the Photogrammetry more effective in itsapplications as well as more flexible to use. The first phase of thetechnology development is the period between 1850-1900, which wasreferred as graphical Photogrammetry. 1900-1950, the analoguePhotogrammetry. 1950-2000, referred as the Analytical Photogrammetry,and finally from 2000 to the present which can be termed as digitalPhotogrammetry (Wolteret al, 2014).
Applicationof Close-Range Photogrammetry (Terrestrial Photogrammetry)
Thetechnology advancement and the ever expanding areas of application ofclose-range Photogrammetry can be said to areas such asarchitectural, biomedical and Bioengineering as well as industrialPhotogrammetry (Curtazet al, 2014).The terrestrial Photogrammetry especially the digital has become animportant technique for both scientists and engineers who want toutilize the images so as to make accurate measurement of complex 3-Dobjects (Sturzenegger& Stead, 2009).In the modern application of the technology, the knowledge inphotographic technique is used in industries such as in miningengineering, building and constructions of structures, machinery andautomobile constructions, among many other numerous and importantuses of the technique. In the technology of terrestrialPhotogrammetry two basic types of cameras are used, which are metricand non-metric cameras (Firpoet al, 2011).
Metriccameras have stable and low distortions of the lens. Their lensescannot be sharpened hen taking photographs. The metric cameras areset and calibrated for Photogrammetric measurement (HyunIl, 2013).The cameras have a stable interior orientation and the camera is afixed focus camera On the other hand, non-metric cameras which canonly be used when there is no need for high accuracy, as well as incase of emergency (Rasmussenet al, 2003).They are fairly high-quality handheld cameras, which can be put intouse by both ‘armature’ and professional. TerrestrialPhotogrammetry works best at a camera-object distance in the range ofbetween 1:10m to 100m. They can also work on the range of 0.10m to0.01m which is referred as macro-Photogrammetry. Finally, thetechnology also works in micro-Photogrammetryas when the photos are exposed througha microscope (Gonzalez-Aguilera,& Gomez-Lahoz, 2009).
TheFuture of Terrestrial Photogrammetry
Thetechnology development and advancement in the Photogrammetry hasbrought a massive breakthrough in the sector, as well as in itsapplications. The future of the technology offers new techniqueswhich continue to be effective as well as easier to use. With thecontinued development the future of the technology will offer newtechniques to Photogrammetrists for close-range applications (Pesci& Teza, 2008).For example, the development of the laser scanner system underprogress at the University of Stuttgarthas been an incredible breakthrough towards the future of thetechnology. Laser beams scanning can be able to scan object surfacesin a regular pattern. In addition, in addition to the two polaranglesof the scanning arrangement, and the distance to the object can aswell be measured in addition to the intensity of the light reflectedbeing recorded (Lichti& Jamtsho, 2006).The future of the technology will be able to offer full informationof any 3-D objects, which is a tremendous breakthrough.Today the TP technology is used in numerous sectors, this everexpanding technology can have the areas of application grouped intothree key areas. These areas entails Bioengineeringand biomedical Photogrammetry also known as biometrics, andindustrial Photogrammetry (Granshaw,2014).
Thedevelopment and advancement in the Photogrammetry technology havebrought breakthrough in the discipline whereby it has been used infields such as architecture. With reference to the informationprovided, it’s clear that, TerrestrialPhotogrammetry technology can be deployed in practices such as in theaspect of long-termmonitoringprojects such as that of monitoring glaciers (Bertin et al, 2015).Terrestrial Photogrammetry has had a long tradition since itsinnovation and out into use. The evolution path of the process of thetechnology despite being key towards its applications was faced byhandicaps such as the need for expensive equipment as well as tediouswork and the need for experts or required skilled personnel (Lamberset al, 2007). However, the combination of digital image processingtechniques and low cost-hardware has made the Photogrammetry moreeffective and in turn successful applications. Due to its numerousadvantages, the TP method is the best technique that can be deployedfor a detailed survey of complex shape structures.
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