TEXTUAL ANALYSIS IN ETHNOGRAPHY AND FOLKLIFE

TEXTUALANALYSIS IN ETHNOGRAPHY AND FOLKLIFE

Directions:The purpose of this assignment is to identify and interpret oralnarrative or social custom relating to American folk life. Answer thequestions to form an outline of a typical ethnographic analysis: 1.identification and problem statement, 2. context and performance, 3.annotation, 4. interpretation, 5. sources. The resulting analysisshould come to 7 pages or more of commentary and sources. Submit yourcompleted analysis in “Drop Box for Ethnography Assignment” inthe “Writing Assignment Guides…” folder under the tab for“Lessons” on Angel (cms.psu.edu) on or before the deadline ofMarch 11, 2007, at 11 p.m. For guidelines on composition andscholarship, see file for grading rubric in the “Essay EvaluationChecklist” file in the “Writing Assignments…” folder underthe “Lessons” tab. When citing sources, use in-text citations(versions of the style are called social scientific, Harvard, MLA, orChicago style) you’ll have a place to list your references at theend in a Sources section.

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  1. Identification and Problem Statement

  1. What is the narrative(s) you collected or the custom(s) you observed? Describe by giving the text in the informant’s words or describing the activities of the event. Include photographic or audio documentation if available. What is the genre that folklorists and ethnographers tend to categorize this text under (e.g., legend, folk tale, and rite of passage) and how does the informant refer to it (e.g., “lie,” “story,” “old-wives tale”).

Iam going to document in this ethnography the wedding customs andpractices that are done in some local churches in the U.S.A. I willmajorly focus on my sister’s wedding that took place recently as Idiscuss the type of rituals, dressing and the significance of thebridesmaids and groomsmen. I remember it was on 3rdFebruary 2012 Traci Fairless, the daughter of the Childress,suggested that to me that she was planning to marry on June thatyear. Her point of informing me that early was because she wanted meto be involved so much in her wedding and help in some wedding plans.The family lived in Oklahoma. I was obliged to make a lot of travelsto her place of residence during these preparations. She had it thatsince I was the closest friend and with best link with her family, Ihad to take great responsibility especially concerning the first andthe second pre-weddings. Her mother, Ms Sanghee, my host mom, greatlyapproved it for the trust she had developed in me. We were to performevery task together in all these plans. These were the first ceremonyto mark the coming together of the two: Fairless and her fiancé whomI came to know as Clancey. The first pre-wedding was meant to allowthe parents from both sides to come together with the bridegroom andthe bride in a form of a ceremony. This is always a practice in thischurch. It is a culture that involves creating of a tie between twofamilies that are joined by the marriage of their children. Here inthis ceremony, there are no instructions on what to wear on neitheris there any formal plan of the meeting. I found this experience fullof new things that I knew not about marriages in different churchsettings and therefore I had a keen interest that before toparticipate deeply in each activity as the planning progresses. Iwanted to know the significance of every move preparation and wasanxious to know what it will culminate into.

Thefirst pre-wedding was planned to be on the 15thof April and was schedule to take place in my host mother’s boss’sfriend’s home in Manhattan in the New York City at around threeo’clock. My host mother’s boss’s name was Dr. Chris. He was avery welcoming friend. This meant some sweat through the cumbersometask of arranging the ground of the meeting. Much had to be done andall depended on me as the overseer of every activity in thepreparation. It involved a lot of planning especially on thedecorations of the ground. The ground was sizable and could hold thetwo families well. We decided on the final decoration of a bluishting with some red flowery decoration punctuating the place. Theother arrangements that occupied us in preparation were on the kindof foods and drinks for that ceremony. We consulted with the chiefchef of a nearby restaurant who would be the caterer who suggested onwedding pre-dinner nibbles. That was not a great deal to him, and weleft all for him. It seemed as though both my sister and her fiancétoo had no better knowledge than be. All these were also new to them.On the 13thof April, all was finished as planned regarding decorations and whatnow remained was the plan on travel. The groom’s parents wereresidents and therefore they would travel on that material day.

Theceremony continued as planned. There was an exchange of greetingschats, laughter and some serious business of knowing each other.Afterwards, the groom officially introduced his bride who was highlycelebrated and cheered by both families. What followed was like somemanner of serious talk that ended in seeing each other off. Themeeting was as brief as possible. This was another key point to note.I had expected it to be complex as it took us some days to organiseit.

Thesecond pre-wedding that took place 17thMay of that year, also came and passed but this time round it onlytook us one day to plan and organize everything. This time round, thepre-wedding was done at my mother’s friend’s home in Ohio City.The ceremony was similar apart from some few changes. In this secondmeeting, there was the presence of the reverend that was in charge ofthe entire plan and also some activities that involved breaking ofbread and giving the dowry followed by handing over of the bride tothe groom’s family. It seemed something very new to me and alsomoved me as the procedure was emotional. This is the point where thetruth of the matter comes into play. For me, I was fond of Fairlessfrom the very tender age. In a flash of a second gone for ever andthe high invisible bond was forcefully cut. Many things flashed in mymind of our past moving me into a trance. The most affected of allwas Fairless’s mother, Ms Sanghee, though she tried to combat itand disguise it. It was all clear, and my sister was the first tonotice it. However, the event went on well.

Themajor wedding ceremony was to take place in the church in Oklahoma.Arrangements that involved many people and members ensued upon theannunciations of the wedding. Major preparations involving weddingcommittee started. The most important part that I played was tooversee the decoration of the church and the churchyard for thewedding ceremony. I was gladly helped by Ms Sanghee as my instructor.The after wedding invitations were to be done at a predestine hotelin the city. In my case, I had to work hand in hand with some hiredexpertise to ensure that the place was decorated as per the plan.Also, I was involved in the choice of the design for the groomsmensuits and the bridesmaid’s gowns. The design and the choice of thecolour and cloth all came from the specifications of the church’sculture. This aspect of the type of clothes to be worn created aquest in me. The bride’s gown also was another issue that added myquest. I was very much inquisitive of this fact. Things moved so fastand the day the wedding ceremony arrive as though without ourknowledge because we were very much occupied.

Inthe ceremony, just after some worship, the groom was the first toenter and matched slowly with his men following him from behindthrough the aisle towards the front. He sits at the right hand of thechurch in the front where his family was. Flashes of camera flickereduncontrollably. Afterwards, the bride with a lot of splendour enteredmatching with her maids following from behind. Pictures are taken ofher matching. The point that I noted was that the bride was cheeredand applauded. She finally sat gracefully on the left where herfamily was seated.

TheReverend took his position and preached first. Afterwards, hecontinued with the process of joining the two and only took an houras the procedure was brief. After some several question of“disagreement” that forwarded to the congregation, the Reverendpassed the bridegroom and the bride through the oath-taking sessionand exchanging of the rings. It was an event that was cheered by thebride’s age-mates and the congregation as a whole especially as thegroom gracefully and welcomingly embraced his bride. Afterwards, thecake-cutting session as a sign of bond followed. How the cake cuttingwas done and how it was shared was another intriguing factor that Ialso wanted to learn about.

Sometime with some music in the background followed where cards ofappreciation were passed to the couple, gifts of appreciation,greetings, embracing, enjoying photo-taking with the couple, matchingrejoicing, praising and worshiping, a moment to interact, andcelebrating the couple. Everybody entered into a new mood. I foundmyself once again cheerful and rejoicing uncontrollably. After this,the after wedding invitation to dinner followed. Everyone followedthe couple to a prestigious hotel that had been hired for this event.The hotel was highly and respectable adorned. It had a temporal aislewith a red carpet that led to the serving table. The couple wascheerfully the first to open the aisle with their majestic matchaccompanied by applause.

  1. What issue or question does this narrative raise about family bonding through marriage? Why is this significant historically, socially, geographically, or culturally?

Inmy point of view, it is as if the key question or issue that arisefrom the above narrative is what does the churches’ cultureregarding wedding as a rite of passage play in the life of itsmembers in the time of celebration? What are the positive influenceson the two families as members of that church? Or to the members ofthe church in general? Or their generations to come? As portrayed bythe narrative above, the church culture and rituals of that churchhad some great significant and impact on an individual’sChristianity life. Wedding at large brings many people together inone place of meeting. Here the faith is preached to them through muchdifferent way within that wedding setting. They can interact andshare on various issues as they learn from the rituals performedduring the wedding. The wedding meeting attracts family members andfriends that may never have had any interest in spiritual mattersconcerning the church. In this ceremony, they can interact with otherchurch goers and experience the different environment of the churchthat includes the love of CHRIST. The teaching that the man of GODdelivers during the ceremony imparts to them a new thought of theirlife and may eventually be changed.

Itis clear also that the culture regarding wedding teaches the peopleand especially the youth on the importance of living a clean lifetill the day of your wedding comes. Therefore, wedding rituals ofthis church touch on the belief of maintaining chastity and sexualpurity amongst the young generation. Wedding also brings peopletogether creating unity and friendship amongst people in a time ofcelebration and also in times of difficulties.

  1. Context and Performance

  1. Describe the circumstances of the collection or custom: Where (give background)? Who (give background)? What prompted it? What was your role or relation to participants or scene? What were the material surroundings or conditions?

Thearrangements and the general plan began back in Oklahoma City. Thewhole event was scheduled to take place at three different sites. Thefirst event that included the first and the second pre-wedding was totake place at Ms Sanghee’s boss’s friend’s place. Also, thegroomsmen were to prepare themselves and the groom at same place. Thesecond event that involved the wedding ceremony was scheduled tohappen at the local cathedral church on the outskirts of OklahomaCity. This was the local church that the groom fellowships. Thecharge had a big yard that could accommodate all the welcomedvisitors. It location is off the busyness of the city and had anexcellent accessibility. The third event included the place for theafter wedding invitation that had to be a spacious hotel that couldhold the people in attendance. We booked the Hotel Philips. We wereattracted to its beautiful and romantic appearance. It is beautifullydesigned for a spectacular event like weddings. The most attractivebit of the hotel is its crystal ballroom that is treated with tiffanyblue window together with dazzling chandeliers. It was a place wherewithout a doubt Fairless loved most.

Inaddition, it had a gigantic and spacious reception area that Ithought it was more than sufficient for our case. Their weddingexpert was very welcoming and understood what we wanted owing to hislong time experience. He gave us a glimpse of the decoration heintended to do for us, and it was satisfying.

Thebridesmaids were made ready in a unique salon together with thebride. They were dressed uniquely in purple with a unique design thatwas new. The brides wedding gown covered her well with its uniquedesign. The groomsmen were prepared at the grooms place together withthe groom.

  1. Describe the circumstances of the action: How was the text communicated or performed? What were the interrelationships among the participants? What were their motivations for participating?

Givensignificant tasks in such an important event that involve handlingcrucial people (V.I.Ps), many people to me was so honourable but alsotricky for I had no prior knowledge. But I was so lucky to find outthat they, my sister and her fiancé, had given me the job out of aloving heart. It was like she wanted me to be experienced in someareas of life and be responsible for the work given. Throughout thewhole event6,they involved themselves so much and would direct and help me ineverything they put on me. The groom, Mr Clancey would in most casesconsider me plainly as brother and as that of the same age. Therewere always some sincere discussions on several issues regardingpreparation, and they would always listen to my arguments with keenconcern. I think this was what motivated me that I was now able tohandle even much bigger tasks like overseeing the decorations in thechurch.

Iloved the way Fairless and her fiancé would relate with the peopleconcerned with the preparation. She would regard every individualthat was older than her as dad or mum. She used to respect them andalso appreciated all the efforts that even the youngest offered inthe preparations. She would treat her fiancé with due respect evenin work. Every step they made in the preparation be it decision ondecorations, the gowns, the food staffs, the people to be employedand in many other areas, she would first want to hear about what herfiancé wanted. She would always consult him on any progress.

Thetwo were also so hard-working that they mixed with people duringpreparation in manual work. They would associate in a very friendlyway that you could not even distinguish the boss from among thepeople.

  1. Describe “meta-information”: Commentaries by the participants on the meaning and significance of the event or narrative.

Ifollowed my quest, and I decided to discuss privately my anxiety withthe two love birds. First of all, I wanted to know deeper of thesignificance of the first pre-wedding. Secondly, I was really curiousabout the keen procedure that is followed by the church on mattersregarding the clothing of the participants of the wedding and finallythe reason why there are many cultural procedures followed by thechurch concerning wedding. I first managed to interview Fairlessbecause she was the first to meet me after their honeymoon at home.She was ready and was amazed by my questions13.

Shetold me that as a Christian and as a good example to the other, thereare some things that one should do and a way in which he or she issupposed to conduct himself or herself respectively. She was clearthat for the church to be strict on the type of dress to wear in thewedding ceremony, it had some spiritual significance. The bride issupposed to cover herself properly and with some white gown tosymbolize the kind of bride Christ will come for. She said thataccording to the Christian bible the white dress that the bride wearsthat covers her correctly signifies the righteous actions of thebride of Christ. She also emphasized on the dresses that thebridesmaids were wearing has to cover them completely as perfectexamples to the congregation that had gathered. This is because themodern generation’s clothing is designed in a way that it exposestheir nakedness.

Concerningthe strict culture that the church follows is to ensure that thereremains a strict adherence to the fear of GOD amongst the people andin so doing they will live a responsible life that is respectable.She says that there have been many issues that have been arising inthe church in the recent past by the misbehaviour of the youth churchin that a lot of sexual scandals have been reported coming from thechurch.

Concerningthe importance of the pre-wedding was that the first pre-wedding ismeant for only introduction. The groom calls the parent together andintroduces his request of marrying the girl. After that event11,the groom’s family is given a go ahead of the preparations that areinvolved in the marriage. Here before the meeting ends they come intoagreement on what size of dowry to offer and also decides on whattime to deliver the dowry. The decision then gives a way ofscheduling the second pre-wedding where the dowry is brought andhanding over of the bride.

  1. Annotation

  1. Use standard reference sources to find comparative examples of the text. For example, for narratives, look at Motif-Index of Folk-Literature (Stith Thompson), Types of the Folktale (Uther), Encyclopedia of Urban Legends (Jan Harold Brunvand), American Folklore: An Encyclopedia (Jan Harold Brunvand), No Laughing Matter (Legman), Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore, Compendium of American Folklore (Hand), Ghost Stories from the American South (McNeil). On-line resources in LIAS include the Human Relations Area Files and on the Web, see the American Folklore Society homepage at afsnet.org.

Weddingis an event that started far back in the history. At first it wasonly base on materialism and possession rather than being built onlove and connection. During the 19thcentury, wedding became more based on mutual love and respect. Itinvolved only a small gathering composed majorly of the members ofthe two families. The announcement of the wedding was usually done inthe church and the followed by wedding itself8.The attire of the bride was composed of the bride’s best cloth andnot necessarily a white one since the white gown was impossible toown. This was so until the mid-19thcentury when the production of a special dress for the bride waspossible. Almost at the same time the couples started the idea ofcalling for a specialist to decorate their place of wedding.

&quotSomethingold, something new, something borrowed, something blue, and a silversixpence in your shoe,&quot is a saying that date to the time ofQueen Victoria. The saying implies that the bride had to make herwedding gown an assessor y in order that her new marriage will befull of good luck. But as for the brides in the U.S most of theseevents are just done for fun. The word old is meant to stand for thepast especially the bride’s parents and family. The bride isallowed to wear jewellery given by her elder sisters or from andolder relative. The term new use in this saying symbolizes the newtime that the bride is embracing by getting married and also the lifethat will follow. In most cases, int is the bride’s gown or the newjewellery that stands as the symbol4.The term borrowed is used to hold for the items that have been takenfrom the families and need to be returned. Through borrowed things,the bride creates a continued link between her and her family as amark of loyalty and comfort. The acquired commodity is always donefrom a marriage that has remained strong in the belief oftransferring the marital blessings to the new marriage. The termsomething blue is a sign of the bride’s loyalty and faithfulness.The presentation of the blue in the wedding is by the bride wearingsome blue flowers in her wedding. Finally14,the term silver sixpence stands for a sign of bringing wealth to thenew family as they start their new life together. Is representationin the wedding is supposed to be tucked into the brides shoe?

Thewhite bridal dresses that Queen Victoria capitalized the brides todaywear in the year 1840. She did this when she chose to wear the whitedress rather than the typical traditional silver dress Otherwiseinitially, the bride were supposed to wear the best cloth out of hercloset. Nowadays brides choose to wear a white dress that is uniquelydesigned for the function alone. A veil always accompanies the gowntoday. It is taken as an assessor y today that symbolizes the bride’sinnocence, dignity and modesty generally termed as virginity.

Activitiesprior to the wedding

Onemajor event that takes place on the wedding day is an event termed asa bridal shower. During this event, the bride receives gifts fromguests and friends10.The shower is usually administered by a chosen maid that is honoured.The activity is always humorous. This is a moment when the bridefeels relaxed. However, the exact origin of the word was fromHolland. In Holland, it had a contrary meaning. The shower was doneon brides who were refused dowry from their fathers. She was showeredwith gift to enable her to be married by any man she wanted.

Asusual, many couples make precautions2,and they remain separate and away from each other till the day oftheir marriage. In today’s wedding ceremonies, it has becomeapparent for the two to meet but just stay away from each other tokeep the tradition. In these cases, the bride and the groom will seeeach other once and then keep off from seeing each other until theday of their wedding.

Ceremony

Inthe typical setting, it is often common to choose from the people toenjoy the part almost equally with the couples9.They are commonly referred to as the bridesmaids and the groomsmen.The issue of having the bridesmaids in the wedding ceremony wasinitially with some spiritual meaning of confusing the evil spiritsof the faithful bride. On the other hand the origin of the groomsmenat the time when the men had to snatch women in order to marry them.During the effort to steal away the woman that she has loved, heneeded to have the best man in terms of strength and hence the term“best man”.

Thetoday`s meaning of giving the bride away is very different as in thepast the fathers used to give their daughters away since they wereconsidered the property of their parents. In today’s wedding, theparents of the bride walk with her down the aisle to show that heapproves her before the groom. For the ceremonial kiss that ends theceremony traditionally, has taken on a new meaning in the weddingtoday. Earlier in the Roman era, a kiss was used to indicate a sealof a contract. In a similar manner, the ceremonial kiss stands for alifelong contract since marriage is a lifelong contract. There wasalso a belief that a kiss allowed the souls of the two to mingle thataccompanied the ceremony. In today’s wedding, a kiss is just a signof endearment.

Weddingcakes were initially a symbol of fertility. They have a very seriousoriginal meaning. It has nowadays been taken only as a feast for thevisitors. Also, the sharing of the first piece of the cake is aritual that began1long ago with a serious meaning. It was taken as a surety for thebride as she endeavours to have children. By superstition, the brideis not supposed to prepare her cake or even taste it before thewedding day. It was believed that she would put herself at the riskof losing love from her husband. Also, there was a belief that if shekept a piece of the cake after the ceremony, she ensures that he willremain faithful.

Traditionally,the guests symbolize their partaking in wishing the couple a luckyfuture by throwing rice13.This may have originated from the practice of throwing the couplenuts as a sign of blessing them with productivity. On the other hand,the newly married couple traditionally threw the unmarried a bouquetand the one that catches would supposedly become the next of becomemarried. This was similar as to throwing of garter the unmarried men.The garter that the groom throws comes from the leg of her bride. Bycatching it, you would be supposedly the next to marry. Initially,the guests would storm the bride’s bedroom for stockings. Theywould then throw the socks to the groom15.The first to hit the groom’s nose was supposedly believed to be thenext in line.

Afterthe wedding

Theactivity that follows in most cases after the wedding is thehoneymoon. From the times of the old, the term honeymoon was used bythe Germans to refer to a time within which the newlywed couple wouldspend their time together taking only mead. This period that occurredbetween the two full moons. The couple would take the honey wine forthat whole period hence the term “honeymoon”.

Again,the tradition of the groom caring her bride across a threshold had aninitial meaning. In today’s wedding, it is taken to mean that thebride gives the groom her virginity and also luck. Traditionally, thebride would appear not willing12to give the groom her virginity and the groom would tend to beforcing her to accept by carrying her across the threshold. Stillearlier when men used to steal away the bride, she would alwaysrefuse, and the man had to carry her across the threshold.

  1. Summarize (1) plot or dramatic similarities and differences to the text you collected or observed, (2) structural or symbolic patterns, (3) functional similarities and differences

Fromthe materials I read from the materials I read from the website,there are some very significant changes in the modern days weddingceremonies and their cultures and the ancient days weddingceremonies8.According to these articles, the meaning that was initially portrayedby the various activities and the thing during a wedding ceremonyhave been eradicated and taken on a new meaning or the initialpurpose being made with little gravity.

Thoughtthe local church in Oklahoma stands in the modern city, I havenoticed that the active meaning of the ancient practices has stillsome traces. For example the staying away from each other of the twobefore the wedding day to ensure protection of chastity in stillobserved.

Ihave also made an observation that during Fairless’s wedding, thetwo parents walked majestically and with a lot of confidence andbright faces. I may not know what they had in mind but something thatI read on their faces3,is that they had confidence in their child. They had no doubt of herconduct and, therefore, showed approval. The observance of thechurches’ culture in this local church is something that has led tothe eradication of the ancient tradition and taking up the newgenerations values.

  1. Interpretation

  1. What do scholars say about the meaning of the type or content of the text you collected or observed? Give a description, sources, a summary of approach (e.g., psychoanalytical, functional, structural, performance, feminist), and your evaluation of the interpretations.

Accordingto analysts, modern culture has it that there is one soul-mate forevery individual. The love and romance in there are the keys to asuccessful marriage life. On the contrary, in today’s marriagesthis is not so. Marriages only last as long as there are no conflictsand the need has not been sufficed. Based on the Bible what themodern marriage in America is not what the Bible has for marriage6.

Inhis book “the meaning of marriage,” Timothy Keller together withhis wife put a very strong foundation for the study of what the Biblesays about the institution of marriage. He put it that marriage is aninstitution that is unsentimental and frank and still beautiful andhopeful.

Thedressing of the white dress for the bride in the weddings started wayback in the 19thcentury. This occurred precisely in the 1840 when Queen Victoria gotmarried to Albert of Saxe-Coburg8.She wore a white gown in order to match with some laces she hadbought. Many portraits of her wedding were produced and circulated.From now on the people opted for a white gown in their wedding. Thecolour afterward was assumed to mean virginity though that was notthe initially intended meaning5.

Theritual that has been taken in by many churches of the white weddinggown arose from the prince’s palace and spread out in the 19thcentury. In the 1920s, the fashion was taken to become churchly andsymbolically to stand for the virginity and purity of the bridegroom.The event that was done during the ceremony that involved lifting ofthe veil made a part of the ancient wedding ritual. It symbolized thetaking possession of the bride as the groom’s wife. In othertranslation, it stood for the revelation of the bride to the groomthat he may approve7.The veiling was done by through an opulent veil that enwrapped thebride like a precious gift to the groom.

Theissue of including the bridesmaids and the groomsmen in a weddingceremony is an event that has it origin in the era of the ancientRome. The bridesmaids were all attired in the same manner as the asthe bride and had curled hair style on their heads. According to theRoman literature, they had a great importance for the wedding. TheRomans were superstitious when it came to wedding. It was believedthat by the ten, bridesmaids and ten groomsmen to stand by the sidesof the bride and the groom, they would protect them from evilspirits. The bridesmaid dressed similarly as the bride in order toconfuse the evil spirits of the identity of the bride. Also, thegroomsmen dressed similarly to the groom to also confuse the evilforces of who the real groom was. This tactic is also done in themodern churches meaning that the church is heavy laden withsuperstitions either knowingly or unknowingly. The sayings thataccompanied the ancient weddings such as “something old, somethingnew, something borrowed something blue” were probably also meant toscare away the evil spirits during the ceremony.

Astime went by, the thought that the bridesmaids and the groomsmen werepresent for the purpose of protecting the couple faded away. Finallythe bridesmaids and the groomsmen had not to worry about wearing thesame clothes with the bride or the groom respectively. These changesmay have been highly affected during the reign of Victoria when thebride’s gown had bustles, the long veils and full court train. Forthe bridesmaids, they only required wearing a simpler white dressthat was accompanied by shorter veils. Today, the bridesmaid is atliberty to wear whatever make they would choose even id quitedifferent from the bride`s attire. By that they are free from anyclothes restrictions. The roles and functions of the groomsmen andthe bridesmaids are nowadays much simpler.

  1. What is your commentary on the meaning of the text you collected or observed?

Inconclusion, my experience at my sister’s wedding ceremony hashelped me capture a lot concerning wedding and marriage life as awhole. If I may return to my study above, many thing that I havefound out about life has to great extent help me to come up and bepart to some aspects of life that one time I might have faced or Imay come to meet.

Themany rituals that are performed in the wedding ceremony have allsignificant that may have an influence on the marriage eitherpositively or negatively. The dressing of the groom and his groomsmenand the bride and the bridesmaids has both significance both to theguest and the wearers themselves. For instance, the bride should havesafeguarded her virginity and purity for the gown she wearssymbolizes her purity. The veil, on the other hand, signifies theapproval of the parents regarding the bride to the groom. When thegroom opens the veil, he is in other words taking possession of thebride as his beloved wife.

Thevows that the bride and the bridegroom are led to utter also have major significance in helping them remain faithful to each other andthus have a good marriage life. The ritual of cutting the cake is afirm surety and symbol of fertility in the marriage as the try tohave children.

  1. Sources

Printedsources

Alex Lluch, Elizabeth Lluch. The Very Best Wedding Planner, Organizer &amp Keepsake. New York: WS Publishing Group, 2010.

Cabot, Meg. The Princess Diaries. Sydney: Macmillan Education Australia, 2008.

Cates, Kimberly. The Wedding Dress (Mills &amp Boon M&ampB). London: Mills &amp Boon, 2011.

Dunak, Karen M. As Long as We Both Shall Love: The White Wedding in Postwar America. New York: NYU Press, 2013.

Ehrman, Edwina. The Wedding Dress: 300 Years of Bridal Fashions. South Kensington: V&ampA Publishing, 2014.

Gabrielle Kaplan-Mayer, Kerry M. Olitzky, Sue Levi Elwell. The Creative Jewish Wedding Book: A Hands-on Guide to New &amp Old Traditions, Ceremonies &amp Celebrations. Woodstock: Jewish Lights Publishing, 2009.

Guisewite, Cathy. The Wedding of Cathy and Irving: A Cathy Collection. Kansas: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2011.

Hauck, Rachel. The Wedding Dress. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Inc, 2012.

Hersch, Karen K. The Roman Wedding: Ritual and Meaning in Antiquity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Kinsella, Sophie. Wedding Night: A Novel. Manhattan: Random House Publishing Group, 2013.

Little, Chell. Wedding Planner Project: A Workbook. Oklahoma: Tate Publishing, 2010.

Marcy Blum, Laura F. Kaiser. Wedding Planning For Dummies. New Jersey: John Wiley &amp Sons, 2011.

Soylu, Jasmine. Turkish U.S.A. Wedding. Murphy: OilUSA.Co, 2011.

Wedding, It Happened One. It Happened One Wedding. New York: Penguin Publishing Group, 2014.

Willdorf, Nina. Wedding Chic: The Savvy Bride`s Guide to Getting More While Spending Less. New York: Penguin, 2005.