The Four Functions of Management


TheFour Functions of Management


Dateof Submission:

Managementinvolves the progress in which an organization achieves its goals andobjectives through people working together and using the availableorganizational resources (Hill &amp McShane, 2008). Management ischaracterized by its course of incessant activities that arecorrelated. It is involved in accomplishing organizational goals andhow these goals are achieved through the combination efforts betweenworkers and organizational resources (Hill&amp McShane, 2008).Management constitutes four management functions, which includesplanning, organizing, leading, and controlling (P-O-L-C).


Planninginvolves making a choice on what kind of activities to be performedin an organization in order to achieve its goals (Unknown,2014).It provides summary on how the activity should performed and when itshould be done. Nykamp(2001) explain that activitiesthat are involved in planning emphasize mainly on achieving the goalsthat are set by the managerial staff. Planning is apprehensive withthe victory of the organization either in the short or long termperiod.


Nykamp(2001) asserts that organizingincludes allocating duties or activities that are developed inplanning stage to different persons or groups within theorganization. Organizing assist in putting into action what wasplanned prior to performing any duty. Various people are givendifferent duties to perform with one main aim of achieving theorganization set goals (Unknown,2014).These duties are structured in such a way that the productivity ofeach person contributes to improved achievements of departments,which in turn results in the victory of division and lastly to thesuccess of an organization.


Hilland McShane (2008) indicate that leading is one of the managementfunctions and can also be referred to as fascinating, directing orinfluencing tasks. These tasks are the guiding measures for membersof the organization, which assist in pushing forward the firm toachieve its goals. The main principle of leading is to boost theorganization output by use of human oriented work power. This alsoincludes motivation of the workers (Nykamp,2001).


Controllinginvolves the role performed by the heads of department especially themanagers (Hill &amp McShane, 2008). Manager’s main role is to lookfor information that will assist in evaluating performance, comparingthe current performance standards with the existing one and come upwith a decision that will meet the current performance standards(Unknown,2014).

ManagementPlan for Carl, Joe and John’s Business

Carl,Joe, and John are doing a business that deals with recreationalactivities. The three are the heads of this business although amongstthem no one had pursued a higher education relating to businessmanagement or administration. The only advantage they have is thatall have experience in different lines that relates to the business(Unknown,2014).Carl becoming the manager has a good idea because he had been workingwith big outdoor sporting goods stores for a long period of time. Hehas experience in the kind of sporting materials or equipment that isrequired to start such kind of businesses (Unknown,2014).Carl also had learnt about some management courses that will help insetting the plan for the business. John, on the other hand, is aretired school physical education (PE) teacher and was also a sportscoach. With his career, John will assist the participants inperforming certain physical exercises because he is a well trained PEteacher (Unknown,2014).Joe, being a part time athletic trainer, will also coordinate withJohn in helping the customers or participants to perform theirexercises well without any problem. This kind of business that thethree were running was a nice decision to them because there wasinadequate sports and entertainment in the area. They were targetingparticipants and that is why they came up with an idea of startingthis kind of business.

Carl,John, and Joe had some weaknesses too. Although each and every one ofthem had some experience in different fields, none of them hadadequate knowledge on the four functions of management that is how toplan, organize, lead, and control the business (Unknown,2014).They just came with the idea of starting the business and began thebusiness straight away because they had capital. Because the namedpersons were the bosses in the business, they decided to employ quitea few workers to support them in running the business. The businessinvolved five battlefields in which each field has a different levelof play. These fields require different individuals to oversee thembut the leaders employed few workers making it difficult to supervisethe five fields. They did not apply the second functions ofmanagement that is organizing therefore, they failed in assigningduties to individuals due to less number of employees (Unknown,2014).

Anotherweakness is that the employees were involved in performing all kindsof duties. They were not given specific duty to perform and that iswhy you will find them in every corner of the field. The three topmanagement teams did not come up with job description for eachemployee and because of this employees were not conversant with theirroles in the business. Hence, they also failed in terms of leading orinfluencing tasks that would have helped in increasing theproductivity of the business (Unknown,2014).

Furthermore,Carl who is the manager failed in computing on the ways or methods ofevaluating the performance of the business. He did not also havesupport from John when he realized that the business was not growingwell. John did not worry about the future of the business even afterbeing given an indication on how the business was growing and thechallenges that was being faced (Unknown,2014).


Themanagement model that would best suit Outdoor Adventure PaintballPark is democratic hierarchy. This is a model in which managementcomes from the top in a structured manner, i.e. hierarchy. In thedemocratic hierarchy, everybody’s opinion is sought and everyone isexpected to participate in the formulation of the management ideas.This model allows certain level of freedom and power on individualsto control their jurisdictions and effectively perform their duties.Equal treatment of everybody is an essentiality in this model. Thedifference in responsibilities does not necessarily imply differencesin status within the organization. This model allows for moreinitiative, and creates an enabling environment for people toeffectively perform their duties. Democratic hierarchies ensure staffsatisfaction, high innovation, promote idealism, and promote thegeneral sense of shared mission and vision of the organization (Aalst&amp Hee, 2004).

Thedemocratic hierarchy is particularly necessary for the OutdoorAdventure Paintball Park taking into notice that it is a partnershipbusiness venture involving Carl, Joe, and John. Of course, eachpartner has equal stake on the business and would not possibly wantto be considered as junior to another. However, the democratichierarchies, unlike the classical hierarchies, do not focus much onthe positions held by individuals but rather on their participatoryroles in formulation of ideas and decision making. I would recommendthat the business structure to have one Director and the other two tomake the Board of Directors. Based on his academic qualification andseven year experience in management, I would highly recommend Carl tooccupy the position of the Director while Joe and John sum up theBoard of Directors positions.

Rolesand Responsibilities of Owners

Havingidentified the positions to be held by the partners, with Carl as theDirector and Joe and John as making up the Board of Directors, theother employees will assume the positions of field supervisors. Thefollowing would be their roles and responsibilities:

TheDirector – Carl

  1. He will be a collaborative director participating in collaborative decision making but not necessarily as the final authority. He will be the arm of the Board of Directors. Carl as part of the Board of Directors will make the necessary essential decisions after which he (Carl) will execute and perform the necessary administrative tasks in line with the decisions made.

  2. His responsibility will entail the overall management and day to day running of the park.

TheBoard of Directors – Joe and John

  1. They will make up a strong Board of directors.

  2. Together with the Executive director the board will make key decisions on the business functions.

  3. They will be engaged in the day to day management and operations of the business.

  4. Each will be allocated to head each of the two departments with Joe being in charge of Human Resource Department and John being in charge of the Events Department, managing the field events.

  5. Will supervise the other employees under their jurisdictions.

TheField Supervisors – the 20 employees

  1. They oversee the duties that are performed by other employees who are under them. In this business, for the five battlefields, each field should have its own supervisor.

  2. They assist the management in making sure that organization targets are met and duties are done accordingly. For instance, in this business of recreational activities, an employee should make sure that the schedule programs are followed accordingly without any interference (Nykamp, 2001).

  3. They also assist the management in organizing for different events. They should try to avoid collision of different events. Each event at its own time.

BalancedScore Card for Outdoor Adventure Paintball Park

BusinessProcess Perspective



Defining employees duties

Demonstration of effective distribution during field events

Proper coordination of field supervisors

Reduced complains from the supervisors

Adoption of new management strategy

Improved decision making and proper coordination between staffs

Employ more staff

Improved efficiency and customer satisfaction




Satisfy Customers

Improves sales

Effective scheduling of events

Reduced cases of double booking

Introduce more field events

Customers spending more time on the field

Enhance training of the employees

Customers responding well to employee events

Learning and Growth Perspective



Adopt new strategies

Effective management

Stronger commitments of employees

More customers attracted to employee field events

Enhanced effective decision making

Quick resolutions to issues or problems

Introduction of new events and amenities

Improved sales


Inrelation to this kind of business, Carl, John and Joe should considerthe need for training all the employees. Employees in this businessshould be trained on procedures on how formulate plans, organize,influence, and control the business. The trio being among theemployees should undergo training on managerial positions. Thisassist in problem solving in case a problem may arise.

Moreover,in this business, management should come up with job titles and jobdescription for each employee. Job title and job description helpemployees to be aware of their roles and responsibilities in thisbusiness (Hill &amp McShane, 2008). Job description assists theorganization in meeting the set target in order to achieve its goals.Job description acts like one of the measures that are used inevaluating the performance of the business. Each employee would beable to oversee and make sure all the duties that are under hissupervision are done accordingly. Hence, this will improve theproductivity of the business. For example, Carl, John, and Joe shouldput their minds together and come up with job titles and roles andresponsibilities for each employee. By doing so, it will prevent therisk of some events being neglected but it will be well organized.

Inrelation to leading as one of the management functions, the topmanagement team should decide on ways of motivating both the workersand the participants (customers). For example, they should motivateparticipants by providing discounts to certain events in case theoutput from that event is increasing.

Inthis essay, we have established that for anyone to have a successfulbusiness, he or she should apply the four functions of management.The four functions of management are the essential elements that areneeded in an organization in order for the business to run smoothly.Also, information on how to plan, organize, lead and control thebusiness are provided in this essay. Any organization or individualwho wants to establish a certain business should consider applyingthe four functions. This will improve the productivity of thebusiness. For instance, if Carl, John, and Joe had knowledge abouthow the four functions of management are put into practice, then theywould observe an increase in productivity of their business. Lack ofthese four functions can result in low productivity due to poormanagement of the business.

Inrunning a business, management plan should be developed. This planwill constitute the mission or vision of the business, strengths andweakness of the business in relation to the four functions ofmanagement (P-O-L-C). This management plan will assist in forming anorganizational structure that involves the roles and responsibilitiesof employees, company or business policies and the channel ofcommunication between the top management and those at the bottom.This will ease the way things are being performed within theorganization. For the case of Carl Thomas and his colleagues, theyhad no management plan and model and this resulted in making someactivities in the business to be difficult. Employees were not atease in performing certain duties because they were not aware oftheir roles and responsibilities. Also, the significance of providingemployees within an organization with trainings is mentioned in thisessay. Employees should be trained on methods that will improve theproductivity of a business. Trainings boost the morale of employeeswhen performing some tasks.


Topof Form

Aalst,W., &amp Hee, K. (2004). Workflowmanagement: Models, methods and systems.Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Bottomof Form

Hill,C. W. L., &amp McShane, S. L. (2008). Principlesof management.Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Nykamp,M. (2001). Thecustomer differential: The complete guide to implementing customerrelationship management.New York: AMACOM.

Unknown(2014). Principlesof management 1.1.Washington, D.C.: The Saylor Foundation.