In1983, Howard Gardner a psychologist at Harvard, published a book onthe various types of intelligence. Before the emergence of thedifferent types, intelligence was a concept that an individualacquired during conception one that was not prone to change.According to Howard Gardner, people possess various types ofintelligence (Gardner, 2011). In Gardner’s opinion, individuals mayhave their strong points on specific fields, and in the same way,they may be strong in more than just one field. Different sourceseach outline a different number of the types of intelligence.However, the types of intelligences by Howard Gardner are currentlynine in number.
Theexistential type of intelligence revolves around human beings, andexistence. With this intelligence, human beings often question theexistence of various things. For example they constantly inquirereasons as to why individuals exist, how they perish, and whathappens after they perish, among others. However, it should berealized that these are questions without answers because it is anenigma. No individual would have the answers as to why human beingsexist. Furthermore, there are those persons who have the tendency ofhaving deep thoughts, and questions about the meaning of life(Gardner, 2011).
Theother type of intelligence is the naturalist intelligence. This typeleans toward the ability of human beings to distinguish betweenliving, and non-living things. The naturalist intelligence is moreacquainted with those individuals who deal with living, andnon-living things on a wider scope. For example those studying aboutplants ought to know different types, and varieties of plants. In thesame way, zoologists possess this intelligence as they are able todistinguish that animals are living things while things such as rocksare not living (Gardner, 2011). Moreover, it is important to realizethat this type of intelligence deals with the overall ability ofhuman beings being able to differentiate things.
Additionally,there is the logical-mathematical type of intelligence. This typerevolves around the world of math, calculations, and quantificationsamong others. Through this type of intelligence, final decisions aremade on grounds of reasoning, thought, induction, and deduction. Mostof the individuals who posses this type of intelligence are oftenpassionate about math, arithmetic, and experiments (Chen, 2009). Theprofessionals acquainted with the logical-mathematical intelligenceare mathematicians, and scientists inclusive of forensic scientists.
Gardner’sother type of intelligence is musical intelligence. In other terms,individuals who are intellectual in this field are often referred toas music smart. As the name suggests, this type of intelligenceincorporates the ability to distinguish rhythm, tone, and pitch. Those individuals with musical intelligence are often captured by thesoothing nature of music, and it enables them to reproduce, andreflect on it. Due to the strong connection between music, andemotions, it is inevitable to find such individuals singing tothemselves. Those people that possess this kind of intelligence arekeen on any tiny detail in regard to music (Gardner, 2011).
Furthermore,Gardner discovered another type of intelligence interpersonalintelligence. In other words, this type may be referred to as peoplesmart. This type of intelligence leans toward effective interactionwith other people in one’s environment (Gardner, 1998). With thisintelligence, Gardner emphasizes the fact that individuals are ableto understand each other in a better way. Interpersonal intelligencemakes it possible for others to deal with emotional outbursts ofthose who are around them. Interpersonal intelligence enables aperson to lead others effectively due to the formidable communicationskills (Gardner, 2011).
Intrapersonalintelligence is another type that was discovered by Howard Gardner.According to Gardner (2011), this is intelligence is the directopposite of the aforementioned type of intelligence. Intrapersonalintelligence incorporates the understanding of one’s thoughts,feelings, and needs. Through this intelligence, an individual ismotivated to plan out the direction in which they want their life tohead. The individuals who possess intrapersonal intelligence ensurethat they motivate, and push themselves beyond their limits.
ThroughGardner, spatial intelligence also known as picture smart wasdiscovered. As its pseudonym suggests, this type of intelligencerevolves around imagery, visualizations, and graphics among others.Artists, painters, and architects among others, are among theindividuals who exhibit this type of intelligence. More often thannot, individuals with spatial intelligence fantasize a lot, draw alot or indulge in puzzles during their free time (Gardner, 2011).
Linguisticintelligence is another of the types of intelligence discovered byHoward Gardner. Linguistically intelligent individuals have theability to use words, and language in a bid to decipher, and embracecomplex meanings. Through this intelligence, individuals clearlyunderstand the meaning of various words in relation to their use inlanguage. In society, the individuals possessing this intelligenceinclude public speakers, journalists, and poets among others.Additionally, young people who exhibit linguistic intelligence have atendency to enjoy writing, reading, and puzzles (Gardner, 2011).
Thelast type of intelligence is the bodily-kinestheticintelligence. This type involves the ability of individuals tocommunicate by the use of body language. Also, these individualsgrasp, and learn new ideas through the use of physical activities.For example athletes, actors, dancers, and those involved in craftsincorporate physical activity or role playing in their learningactivities(Chen, 2009).
Inregard to the discussed types of intelligence, I have observed wheremy strengths and weaknesses lie. Firstly, I believe that I amlinguistically intelligent because I am a lover of words, andlanguage. I like using words to decipher complex meanings.Additionally, I like to write, and read, and according to the HarvardPsychologist, young people who exhibit linguist intelligence are fondof the above(Gardner, 1998).On the other hand, I am not good at mathematics, and arithmetic. As aresult, it is safe to conclude that my weakness lies in thelogical-mathematicaltype of intelligence. I would rather much read, and write in lieu ofcalculations, and counting. In a nutshell however, I do not believethat the discussed types of intelligence are fit for determining theintelligence of various individuals. As observed, Gardner discoveredseven types of intelligence at first before he discovered the lasttwo types. This gesture depicts the fact that the types ofintelligence are not limited to nine in number, and for this reason,I do not believe that they are a valid measure of intelligence.
Accordingto Module 5, concepts are those units of thinking or things that areconnected together by a common feature. The three concepts that Ifound most interesting were problem solving, intelligence, andlanguage. To begin with, problem solving refers to the act of usingcertain information in order to come up with a solution. Intelligenceassists human beings in simplifying certain things, reasoning, andensuring that individuals relate well with others. Language as aconcept, initiates how human beings communicate with one another. Itis through language that there is evidence that the thoughts of eachhuman being are different.
Furthermore,there are ways in which these concepts assist human beings in goingabout their day to day lives. It is intelligence that enables humanbeings to decipher, and understand various complex concepts. Asaforementioned, intelligence also makes it easier for people to copein life, to understand other people, and learn from their pastexperiences. It is also important to realize that psychologists eachhave a different view in relation to intelligence, and all itconstitutes. Additionally, the concept of language assistsindividuals in conversing with other individuals in theirsurroundings.
Problemsolving is another concept that is used in arriving at varioussolutions in the lives of human beings. In life, it is inevitablethat human beings find out the type of problem, before resorting tofinding a solution. However, before solution, the individuals shouldlook into the methods of solving the problem before they get thefinal solution. In day to day lives, individuals solve their problemsby using their emotions, and employing creative thinking in analyzingthe problem.
Insummation, it is important to understand that intelligence is vitalin the lives of human beings. As observed, through intelligence,individuals are able to solve various problems. Also, it should benoted that the nine types of intelligence by Howard Gardner do notfully qualify to measure the intelligence quotient of human beings.
Chen,J.-Q., Moran, S., & Gardner, H. (2009). Multipleintelligences around the world.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Gardner,H. (1998). Multipleintelligences: The theory in practice.New York, NY: Basic Books.
Gardner,H. (2011). Framesof mind: The theory of multiple intelligences.New York: Basic Books.